Open Access Case study

Diagnosing High Water Production in Kalama Field, Niger Delta

Amieibibama Joseph, Friday James

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i917488

Produced water is water trapped in underground formations that is brought to the surface along with oil or gas. It is by far the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas production especially in brown fields. Management of produced water present challenges and costs to operations. In this paper, the possible causes, effects and solutions of high water-cut is being investigated in some production oil wells in Niger Delta, using Kalama field as a case study. Diagnostic and performance plots were developed in order to determine the source of water as well as to evaluate the impact of excess water production on oil production and in field economics in general. Results obtained from the diagnostic plots showed the possible sources of water production are channeling behind casing and multi-layered channeling. The recommended remediation is cementation through a workover operation. Also, a concise step to be taken for identifying excess water was also developed in this work to effectively control excess water production in oil producing wells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mathematical Modelling of the Drying Characteristics of Milled Sorghum Residue

J. Isa, O. I. Majasan, K. A. Jimoh

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i917487

During milling of cereal grains, bran which is separated from the starchy endosperm of the grain is a major by-product. In this study, milled sorghum residue was dried in a cabinet dryer under different conditions (temperature and air velocity). The obtained drying data were fitted into ten existing mathematical models and obtained the best model while, the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of the drying process was determined using Arrhenius type approach. The result shows that the initial moisture content obtained for the sorghum residue using standard oven drying method were 41.28 ± 0.33%, 49.52 ± 0.63 % and 47.06 ± 0.42 % on wet basis for the wet residue of variety A, B and C, respectively, at equilibrium point, the final moisture content of about 12.93 ± 0.14 – 14.31± 0.07 as temperature ranges from 40 oC to 70 oC and air velocity ranges from 0.8 m/s to 1.2 m/s. During the drying process, the drying rate falls more rapidly as it was initially high as a result of more moisture in the sorghum residue and the drying rate decreases slowly until reaching the reduced moisture content. The obtained values of effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) ranges between 9.89 x 10-10 and 22.21 x 10-10 m2/s, 9.45 x 10-10 and 20.62 x 10-10 m2/s and 8.56 x 10-10 and 20.76 x 10-10 m2/s for variety A, B and C, respectively. However, the result of the modelling shows that the drying characteristics of variety A and B of the sorghum residue can be predicted using Midilli et al. model while the drying behaviour of Variety C can be predicted using Hii et al. model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dual Fueling a Lister Diesel Engine with Producer Gas Generated from Wastepaper and Biosolids

Richard Bates, Klaus Dölle

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 27-44
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i917489

The aim of this study is to investigate if wastepaper and biosolids can be used to dual-fuel a small diesel generator with producer gas produced by a tiny Imbert style downdraft gasifier. The waste paper was formed into 20 cm³ to 60 cm³ chunks, dried to a 6% moisture content and gasified. The energy potential that could be provided was up to 3.24 kWh/kg at a diesel usage of 60 ml/6 min

Chunks made from Wastepaper and biosolids showed a higher energy output of up to 9.23 kWh/kg at a diesel usage of 45 ml/6 min. run. However, chunks containing waste paper showed not to be a valid fuel option due to its low density, difficulty to gasify, tar production, and tendency to hang up in the gasifier, which caused difficulties in the gasifier and engine and system operation overall.

Biosolids chunks with a volume of 15 cm³ have the potential to provide up to 3.6 kWh/kg at a diesel usage of 5 ml/6min without operational problems in regards to tar formation and operational stability and energy generated by the genset system.

A ton of biosolids could generate up to 3,600 kWh of energy. Additional savings for disposal of biosolids including trucking could be realized based.

Open Access Original Research Article

Original Research Article Paper for Screen Printing Applications – A Paper Development Study

Klaus Dölle

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 45-63
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i917490

Screen printing originated in China during the Song dynasty (960-1279 CE) and is used today in commercial and artistic applications. The presented research project describes the development of a screen-printing product for studio art applications. The improvement of the paper properties from laboratory and small 12-inch laboratory paper machine art paper development, followed by a semi commercial production at a speed of 128 ft/min on a 48-inch semi commercial paper machine for the final art paper, showed an improvement throughout the development process for mechanical and optical paper properties. The finished art paper product exceeded the expectations by the artist using the art paper in the studio. The produced art paper with a basis weight of 63 g/m² and a thickness of 94 µm is produced from a mixture of 70% northern bleached hardwood Kraft pulp and 30% northern bleached softwood Kraft pulp. The ISO brightness and opacity of the art paper bluish gray colour was at 35.6% and 100%, The ISO color value was for the L*, a*, b* Hunter color scale 65.8%, 0.9, and 1-0.7 respectively. As a parameter for attachment of water-based inks, surface roughness was for the top side 1703 ml/min and bottom side (wire side) 1336 ml/min. The Cobb number indicating water penetration of the art paper is 28.9 g/m².Bending stiffness in machine direction and cross machine direction resulted in 22 mN and 12 mN respectively. The tensile index was measured at 52.9 N·m/g for the machine direction and 31.6 N·m/g for de cross-machine direction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Evaporative Cooling Pad Material from Hyphaene Thebaica Fibers

Alio Sanda M. Djibrilla, Atto H. Abdoulkader, Karimoun M. Illyassou, Drame Yaye Aissetou, Adamou Rabani

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 64-75
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i917491

Evaporative coolers are technologies highly used as a source of thermal comfort in terms of fresh air provider in areas where weather conditions are harsh and people living standard goes from medium to low earnings. This technology being environmentally friendly still requires a certain minimum maintenance, mostly the change of pads. This paper presents the performance of a cost-effective cooling pad made from the fibers of hyphanene thebaica (wood wool) as an alternative pad to the commercial ones rendering this technology more accessible and affordable for all social classes. The experiment was done in an insulated duct whereby thermodynamic parameters of locally made pad such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity and velocity, were recorded, and effect of physical properties on performances were analyzed. Compared to the commercial pad, the proposed local pad presented the lowest minimum outlet dry bulb temperature (20.00oC), a saturation efficiency of 78.80% with the highest cooling capacity of 0.1867 kW, the highest heat transfer coefficient of 7.3497 kW/m2 oC, the best cost-to-efficiency ratio (CER) and coefficient of performance (COP). By studying and improving the pads thermophysical characteristics, performance could be improved opening ways towards industrial production of such pads for a sustainable development.

Open Access Review Article

Multilayer Optical Waveguides as Isolators, Polarizers and Other Optical Devices: A Review

Neha Sharma

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 76-84
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i917493

An optical waveguide is a structure guiding the wave of light, limiting it to travel through the given and specific path. If the size of transverse dimensions is bigger than the guided light wavelength, then total internal reflection (TIR) and geometrical optics can be used to explain the working principle of geometrical optics. There is a strong control from Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structures over light and some of the best use cases of such structures rely on the functionalities while using defects in lattice which had led to the Photonic Crystal (PhC) heterostructure design. The photonic band structure is influenced by the defects in the PhC and it can cause the confinement or flow of light apart from specific pathways in the property and crystal of those structures.

In this paper, we have investigated the application areas of polarizers, isolators and other optical devices in optical waveguides. The loss occurred in the added layer and changes in the properties of the waveguide is also discussed. It is also observed that resonant layer effect (RLE) can improve and play a pivotal role to develop a lot of devices like polarizers, modulators, and isolators.