Open Access Original Research Article

Art Paper for Large Wood Relief Block Printing – A Paper Development Study

Klaus Dölle, Hélène Rainville

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i717475

Wood relief block printing was developed in China in the seventh century and is used today for many art printing applications. The presented research project describes the development of an art paper product applicable for large wood relief block printing from laboratory scale to large semi commercial production of art paper for printing image sizes of up to 44-inch (1118 mm) by 96-inch (2400 mm) at outdoor steam roller printing events or smaller indoor printing press applications.

The improvement of the paper properties from laboratory development, small laboratory paper machine and semi commercial paper machine run for the production of the final art paper showed an improvement throughout the process development for the optical and mechanical paper properties and exceeded the set values set by the artist using the art paper.

The produced art paper with a basis weight of 260 g/m² and a thickness of 171 µm is produced from a mixture of 70% northern bleached hardwood Kraft pulp and 30% northern bleached softwood Kraft pulp.

The ISO brightness of the art paper off-white (egg-shell) colour was at 63.2% and the ISO color value for L, a, b. at 90.8, 1.1, and 12.6 respectively.

The art papers surface roughness and porosity as a parameter for ink attachment and penetration is for the top side 2179 ml/min and for the bottom side (wire side) 2326 ml/min, whereas porosity was measured at 1668 ml/min.

Bending stiffness in machine direction and cross machine direction was measured at 157mN and 70 mN respectively. Burst strength was measured at 2.24 kPA·m²/g.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Locally Available Wheat Straw Ash in Developing High Strength Concrete

Muhammad Armaghan Siffat, Muhammad Ishfaq, Afaq Ahmad, Khalil Ur Rehman, Fawad Ahmad

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i717476

This study is supervised to assess the characteristics of the locally available wheat straw ash (WSA) to consume as a substitute to the cement and support in enhancing the mechanical properties of concrete. Initially, after incineration at optimum temperature of 800°C for 0.5, the ash of wheat straw was made up to the desirable level of fineness by passing through it to the several grinding cycles. Subsequently, the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) along with X-ray diffraction (XRD) testing conducted on ash of wheat straw for the evaluation its pozzolanic potential. Finally, the specimens of concrete were made by consuming 10% and 20% percentages of wheat straw ash as a replacement in concrete to conclude its impact on the compressive strength of high strength concrete. The cylinders of steel of dimensions 10cm diameter x 20cm depth were acquired to evaluate the compressive strength of high strength concrete. The relative outcomes of cylinders made of wheat straw ash substitution presented the slight increase in strength values of the concrete. Ultimately, the C-100 blends and WSA aided cement blends were inspected for the rheology of WSA through FTIR spectroscopy along with Thermogravimetric technique. The conclusions authenticate the WSA potential to replace cement in the manufacturing of the high strength concrete.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Study of the Effects of Convective Drying on Some Selected Vegetables

Samson A. Adeleye, Iyiola O. Oluwaleye, Taiwo O. Oni

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 29-43
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i717477

Aim: This work gives the reports on experimental study of the effects of drying on some selected vegetables, namely fluted pumpkin (specimen I), spinach (specimen II), lettuce (specimen III), and waterleaf (specimen IV).

Methodology: The vegetable specimens were dried at regulated drying temperatures of 323K, 333K, and 343K, and the percentage amount of water, fat, crude fibre, ash, protein, and carbohydrate, as well as the fungi and bacteria counts in the vegetable specimens was determined at these temperatures.

Results: The results revealed that the amount of water in the vegetable specimens reached 0% earlier at the regulated drying temperature of 343K than at the other regulated drying temperatures. The results also indicated that the dried vegetable specimen II has highest fat content of 8.2%, the dried vegetable specimen III has highest crude fibre content of 14.5%, the dried vegetable specimen IV has highest ash content of 18.6%, the dried vegetable specimen I has highest protein content of 30.3%, and the dried vegetable s specimen III has highest carbohydrate content of 42.2% at the regulated drying temperature of 323K. The same trend of results was obtained for the regulated drying temperatures of 333K and 343K. Furthermore, the results showed that at the regulated drying temperature of 323K, the dried vegetable specimen III has the lowest bacteria counts of 4.3 x 107 CFU/g. The trend of result obtained for the regulated drying temperatures of 333K and 343K is similar to that of the 323K. At the regulated drying temperature of 323K, the dried vegetable specimen II has the lowest bacteria counts of 1.7 x 107 CFU/g. The same trend of results was obtained for the regulated drying temperatures of 333K and 343K.

Conclusions: Drying has effects on the percentage amount of fat, crude fibre, ash, protein, and carbohydrate in the vegetable specimens. The microbial counts and the fungi counts decrease when the temperature increases. The present work can be applied in food engineering industries, and engineering in agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Real-time Optimization and Implementation of Multi-rate Digital FIR Kernel Filter

Stephen U. Ufoaroh, Kelvin N. Nnamani, Azubuike N. Aniedu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 44-58
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i717478

One ideal performance of this design is in the areas of decimation where a decimation factor of 10, 45-order and pass band ripple of 1dB and interpolation of sampled rates where a sinusoidal signal input produced a ripple free output with interpolation factor of 10, 52-order and stopband attenuation of 60dB. Owing to the multiple samples of filter length of 200, the filter performed down sampling preceded with filtering as well as up sampling preceded with filtering, hence multi-rate filter by allowing a low threshold of frequency of  to be passed, blocking a high threshold of   and vice versa. There was resampled output increased to 150% preceded by filtering. The filter coefficients for low pass and high pass Digital FIR filter, through the least square regression method, parks McClellan Algorithm and window methods were employed for easy optimization. More so, there was creation of 2-4-5 filter channel banks through the 2nd-level convolution of their down sampling and up sampling filtering techniques during the multi-irate filtering to ensure the design of error-free Digital FIR Filter using MATLAB File editor(M-File) and tool boxes for writing the C-programming of the design. In the analysis, the mean and standard deviation of the low pass Digital FIR Filter output during decimation and interpolation are (0.26, 6.13) and (0.004,1.22) respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Surface Roughness Characterization for Stress Concentration Factor Predictions: A Bayesian Learning Approach

Jingyi Zhang

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 59-70
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i717479

The surface roughness has an important influence on the fatigue life of the structures. The fatigue life reduces due to the stress concentration caused by surface roughness. The stress concentration governs the fatigue crack initiation and propagation. The accurate acquisition of the stress concentration factor of rough surfaces is a key issue in determining fatigue life. Nevertheless, semi-empirical models may be biased for various machining processes. Besides, finite element method simulations cannot give explicit expression of the stress concentration factor. Bayesian learning can construct accurate prediction models which offering a number of additional advantages. In this paper, based on several data pairs constructed by finite element method, the correlation expression between the stress concentration factor and statistical roughness parameters of surfaces is established quickly through Bayesian learning. Compared with some other semi-empirical models, the accuracy and stability of the proposed method are certified. This paper provides a simple and effi-cient approach to determine the stress concentration factor for rough surfaces under different processing conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Behavior of Ferrocement Concrete Plates Subjected to Flexural and Dynamic Loadings

Yousry B. I. Shaheen, Fatma M. Eid, Omnia Mesalam

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 71-84
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i717480

Ferrocement is one of the structural materials, widely used due to its advantages from its particular behavior such as mechanical properties, and impact strength. This paper deals with the impact studies and energy absorption properties of ferrocement slabs. For these studies, 11 different ferrocement slabs of size 50 mm X 500 mm X 25 mm were cast with alteration in the combinations of mesh layers and test results are analyzed to find the different crack patterns .The test specimens were loaded by 3.10 kg under its height 1.20 m in the center of plates. The ferrocement plates were divided into 4 groups reinforced with steel mesh, steel mesh with steel bars, percentage of rubber and fiber. The impact energy at initial cracking stage and at failure was determined for all the slabs. Results of reinforced ferrocement plates emphasized that increasing the number of the steel mesh layers in the ferrocement forms increases the first cracking load, ultimate load and energy absorption. Using steel bars with steel meshes led to higher energy absorption than that obtained when using mild steel bars only. Using rubber and fiber achieved high impact energy.