Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Normal Ratio Method and Distance Power Method for Estimating Missing Rainfall Data with Three Neighboring Stations

Celeste A. De Asis

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i617469

This study compared the performances of Normal Ratio Method and Distance Power Method as a tool for estimating missing rainfall data. The data utilized are the rainfall data of the three neighboring station of Catarman, Northern Samar, Philippines. These stations are Catbalogan Station (Samar Province), Legazpi (Bicol Province) and Masbate (Masbate Province).

The observed daily rainfall data for the Catarman (Northern Samar), Catbalogan, Legazpi, and Masbate were obtained from the Philippine Atmospheric Geographical Astronomical Services Administration. The monthly rainfall were computed for the three (3) neighboring stations (Catbalogan, Legazpi, Masbate).

The evaluation used the T-test for correlated samples and the Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient for the monthly rainfall data computed of the three neighboring Station of Catarman, Northern Samar with the three neighboring stations. Based from the results, Normal Ratio Method performs better than Distance Power Method as applied to three neighboring stations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Pollution Assessment from Slaughterhouses Waste Discharge in Port Harcourt

Ogbebor Daniel, Ugbebor N. John, Momoh O. L. Yusuf, Ndekwu B. Onyedikachukwu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 10-28
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i617470

Aim: The study aimed at evaluating pollutants present in soil due to slaughterhouse wastewater discharge into surrounding land mass as well as comparing land deposition as an alternative means of discharge.

Study Design: The study design was based on Investigative Survey Research Approach (ISRA). The ISRA for obtaining data entailed schedule of series of visits to slaughterhouse facilities. The tasks accomplished during such visits included the following: Inspection and witnessing processing operations within and around the sampled slaughterhouses; interviewing relevant and competent staff of the slaughterhouses and residents living in areas close to the slaughterhouses; Collection of soil samples at specified depth intervals within the discharge points of selected land based slaughterhouses for laboratory analysis.

Methodology: A total of twelve composite samples were collected from three different land discharged locations. Three composite samples each were collected from the sampling locations at a depth of 0 to 10 cm, 10 to 20 cm, 20 to 30 cm and 30 to 40 cm. Four composite samples each were collected for analysis from the three sampling locations on specified sampling dates. The samples were then placed in sterile polythene bags and transported to the laboratory for processing.

Results: A high build-up of heavy metal concentration was observed in soil samples from all the sampled locations across their examined depths. Mn had the highest average concentration across the depths followed by Zn, Pb and Cd as shown from sampled results of LA1, LA2 and LA3. The average concentrations of Mn, Zn, Pb, and Mn decreased across the depths for all examined sites except for a truncated build-up of Zn and Mn at depths 30-40cm and 10-20 cm respectively.

Conclusion: From the results obtained therefore, it was revealed that effluent/solid wastes generated from the slaughterhouse is highly polluted and has a huge effect in nutrient build-up, hence, there is an urgent need for basic treatment of wastes before discharge to land.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of IOT Device for Sensing Weather and Environmental Pollutants

T. E. Babalola, A. D. Babalola, M. S. Olokun

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 29-40
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i617471

Pollutants emitted into the atmosphere, such as ozone, which raises temperature, contributes to climate change. This may have inverse effect on the local air quality. However, other Particulate Matter (PM) components can heat or cool the temperature. Weather and environmental pollution can cause headaches, heart disease, respiratory problems, acid rain, fever, and other symptoms that are harmful to both people and the environment. This research center on development of smart sensors to monitor our environment's exposure to weather and environmental contaminants. This was made possible by developing an interface between data collection and monitoring equipment that interfaced with a website and analysis software. The online portal records and analyzes the measured data from the monitoring device in accordance with the WHO (World Health Organization) standard. It also compares the measured data from various locations. The main microcontroller in this work is an Arduino UNO which helps in data collection; and the CoolTerm application which helps exchange data with hardware connected to serial ports with the microcontroller. The system monitors environmental changes such as temperature and precipitation. The data is displayed as graphical statistics on the web site's design in the form of web portal information.

Offices on the Federal Polytechnic Ile Oluji campus, in addition to the production powerhouse, are used to test the equipment. Each dataset was generated in three minutes and compared to the WHO standard. People who live near generators, according to the findings, face a greater risk to their health.