Open Access Opinion Article

Analysis of Combustion Characteristics and Emission Characteristics of Alternative Fuels Worldwide

Xu Da, Qin Fei, Li Xiangyang

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i517462

The combustion characteristics and emission characteristics of the commonly used alternative fuels in the fuel process are reviewed, the three types of alternative fuels are: Alcohols alternative fuel, biological alternative fuel and gas alternative fuel. The three alternative fuels have their own advantages and disadvantages in combustion characteristics and emission characteristics. The dual fuel blended with alcohols has a higher burning rate than pure diesel or gasoline, and emits fewer soot particles. When biofuel is blended into traditional fuel, the thermal efficiency is improved, and the particle diameter of the emitted particles is smaller than that of pure diesel. The use of hydrogen fuel increases the power of the engine, and significantly reduces the content of CO and CO2 in the emissions. With the increase of the proportion of hydrogen, the amount of soot emitted becomes less, but the amount of nitrogen oxide emissions increases. Each of the three types of alternative fuels has its own characteristics and advantages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Vegetation Response to Climate Variability on Land use Land Cover Changes using In-Situ and Satellite Imagery Observation Data for Semi-Arid Maasai Mara National Reserve Rangeland Ecosystem, Kenya

Charles C. Kapkwang, Japheth O. Onyando, Peter M. Kundu, Joost Hoedjes

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-27
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i517461

Monitoring vegetation response through enhanced change detection by remote sensing and geographical information systems has tremendously improved real time information on surface features. Over the last few decades biomass monitoring at large scale has been made possible from information and metrics derived from satellite sensors. Maasai Mara National Reserve has been utilized in many decades as Kenyan natural grassland for wildlife grazing without periodic assessment of biomass production as affected by impact of climate variability yet it’s a tourism hub and one Kenyan economic contributor. This research evaluates the use of high spatial resolution satellite imagery such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer or the Project for On-Board Autonomy–Vegetation and latest SENTINEL-2 for deriving the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values in relations to in-situ measurements of biomass production between 2009 and 2019 in Mara, Kenya. Area frame sampling of biomass per unit area in Kgha-1clipped from 50cm by 50cm quadrats were used in destructive sampling. The reserve grassland area coverage was estimated to be 717.203km2 (46.75%) where the in-situ total above ground grass biomass projected in dry season was 35.094 tonha-1. This was approximated as 2,516,952.208 tonnes per the season reserve cover while in wet season, 42.123 tonha-1 was approximated as 3,021,074.197 tonnes. The error matrices developed to assess the accuracies of the ecosystem classification indicated values that ranged between 80-100% and 87.5-100% for producer’s and user’s accuracy respectively. 3 out of 7 satellite imagery maps (2017, 2018, and 2019) were assessed for accuracy using reference data collected during fieldwork in 2018 and 2019 in ecosystem. The overall accuracy was 95.22% with Kappa index of 0.94 for 14 land cover classes shown in table 7. From the findings, potential factors influencing vegetation growth in different climatic regions are varied and complex. It can be noted that climate variability influence vegetation response in spatial scale to supply sustainable quality vegetation/pasture for wildlife feeds and ecosystem development. Vegetation mapping and monitoring of ecosystem behavior help stakeholders with information of vegetation characteristics Decision policy formulation and wildlife planning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long Term Behavior of Ultra High-Performance Concrete

Zeinab A. Etman, Noha M. Soliman, Mahmoud M. Abou Raia

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 36-54
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i517463

Ultra-High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) is one of the important types of concrete technology breakthroughs in the 21st century. It achieved high results of mechanical properties, durability (resistance fire) and bonding strength. The aim of paper is to evaluate the long-time behavior of UHPC. The main variables were finesse modulus of sand, crushed quartz powder, fly ash and metakaolin and methods of curing (water& hot).The sand with different fineness modulus(3.2, 2.36 and 1.9) were used, Crushed quartz powder with ratio (10%, 20% and 30%) as a replacement of sand was used. Fly ash and metakaolin, with of (10%, 20%, 30 and 40%) and (5%, 10% and 15%) as a replacement of cement; respectively. The effect of these variables on the mechanical properties (compressive, tensile, flexural strength) at different ages. Also, the drying shrinkage strain was evaluated. The results showed that using and with fineness modulus (1.9), 20% ratio of crushed quartz powder to fine sand (CQ/S), 20% of fly ash to cement (FA/C) and 5% of metakaolin to cement (MK/C) give the best proportions of UHPC. The compressive strength for this mix was 900 kg/ cm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Innovative and Robust Application of Automation for Unit Level Traceability on Dual Die configuration of Micro Electromechanical System Products

Cheryl Jallorina, Mary Grace Tapia, Jerome J. Dinglasan

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 55-60
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i517464

Strip mapping for unit level traceability on die attach process of semiconductor companies provide quality driven impression for end users on the market. On processing of Micro electromechanical system packages, strip map generated by operators manually, certain errors and discrepancies are encountered and inevitably experienced by the production line. This causes misleading analysis on manufacturing problems and may lead to inappropriate and incorrect solutions hurting the process line. The application of modern technology and internet of things have been considered as an improvement. This is to eliminate human intervention errors caused by manual practice and promoted fool proof design of procedures. Having a user-friendly application with integration of modern technology drives significant improvement provide benefits to both supplier and customer of the manufacturing world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Africa: Her Space-Time Convergence Status

Elisha Akech Ochungo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 61-80
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i517465

Today, the research interest on the state of mobility and accessibility of a place is growing everywhere. Previous studies on space-time convergence have shown that, the world has become ‘flat’ due to fastness in accessibility of places by goods, information and the people. Whereas this is true, the prevailing state of space-time convergence in Africa is still an outstanding issue of concern. This paper aims to fill this gap through story telling of the information borrowed randomly from existing literature on the subject matter. The results obtained show that, Africa is yet to fully get integrated proper into the global networked society because of her huge transport and communication infrastructure gap. The paper concludes with a recommendation that, African leaders should endeavour to fix the infrastructure gap and must at the same time, purpose to allow a faster cross border movement of goods and people to help speed up space-time convergence to match the global mobility pace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Calcination on the Chemical and Microstructural Properties of Rice Husk Ash

Khalil Ur Rehman, Afaq Ahmad, Fawad Ahmad, Ezaz Ali Khan, Muhammad Armaghan Siffat

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 81-87
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i517466

This research study is aimed to evaluate the effects of different calcination temperatures on the properties of rice husk ash such as the chemical and microstructural properties. Rice husk ash is not utilized properly; it is not dumped with proper handling which is also causing environmental issues. Currently researchers are working on supplementary cementitious materials in concrete, in light of which, this research study is aimed to evaluate the effects of burning on Rics Husk Ash (RHA) structure and its pozzolanic reactivity for utilizing it in concrete. The rice husk is burnt at temperatures of 600-800°C for a duration of 8, 16 and 24 hours and for evaluating different chemical and structural properties through tests of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). It is concluded that burning of rice husk at 600-800°C for duration of 24 hours gives us more reactive and amorphous material and can be used as a cement substitute for sustainable concrete production.