Open Access Original Research Article

The use of Crushed Waste Glass as a Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregates in Asphalt Concrete Mixtures (Glassphalt)

Gbadamosi Aderemi Tobi, Ogunsuyi Raphael Abidemi, Ojo Meshach Felix

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i417455

With the rapid economic growth and continuously increased consumption, a large amount of glass waste materials is generated; this study investigated the effect of crushed waste glass as filler and also as an aggregate in the asphalt binder course. It compares the glassphalt mix with the specification range at different percentages to meet specifications limit according to Nigeria roads and bridges reverse book of 1997 Waste glass are cleaned and crushed from the glass bottles and added to the asphalt as a filler and as a replacement for coarse aggregates, the marshal method is used to determine the optimum bitumen content and evaluate the properties of the asphalt mix. However, 24 samples were prepared in total, 12 samples each for the asphalt mix used to determine the optimum bitumen content and the other 12 samples for the glassphalt mix used to find out the effect of adding the different percentages of crushed waste glass to the asphalt mixture. The Marshall test carried out on the asphalt mixtures showed that the optimum bitumen content of bitumen was found out to be 6.2% of the asphalt mix by weight. Also, Marshall Test carried out on the glassphalt mix showed the optimum percentage of glass used in the binder course of the weights of aggregates in the asphalt mix. The result of this experiment is been checked to be consistent with the Nigeria road and bridges reverse book of 1997, i.e. Marshall Stability, flow, bulk density, and air voids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electricity Production Using Plant–Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC)

B. S. Shilpa, H. S. Dayananda, P. Girish, K. Arun Kumar, T. C. Bhoomika

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 11-25
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i417456

The current climate change threat by green house gas emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has necessitated a search for alternative non-polluting, reliable, renewable and sustainable sources of energy such as solar energy and it’s derivatives. The present work focuses on power generation by Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell using Phragmitesaustralis (Reed plant). The plants were grown in fuel-cell, graphite as anode and carbon felt as cathode, separated by proton-exchange-membrane. During anaerobic microbial metabolism of carbohydrates in the roots, protons and electrons are released, the electrons are donated to the anode by the microbes. These electrons can be channeled through a circuit bearing a load to the cathode. In this work, carbon granules as substratum (control), red soil and carbon granules mixture (30:70) as substratum in varied condition was considered. For control substratum, the max.voltage measured was 0.327 V and power density of 2.06x10-3 mW m-2 was obtained. When red soil mixed with carbon granules in the ratio 30:70, the voltage measured was 0.6 V and the power density was found to be 3.78x10-3 mW m-2. When graded red soil (0.0018 m) mixed with carbon granules in the ratio 30:70, the voltage measured was 0.623 V and the power density was found to be 3.98x10-3 mW m-2. The result proves that the plant microbial fuel cell can be used for generating electricity and is a promising renewable energy technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Rainfall Variability and Trends Over Nzoia River Basin, Kenya

Ernest Othieno Odwori, Jacob Wanambacha Wakhungu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 26-52
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i417457

Nzoia river is mainly rain fed and the basin is one of the regions that is highly vulnerable to climate change in Kenya. Understanding rainfall variability and trends is important for better water resources management and economic development in the basin. The aim of this study is to assess variability and trends in rainfall at 13 sites within Nzoia River Basin over the period, 1970 to 2001, using the parametric test of Linear regression analysis and the non-parametric Mann–Kendall statistical test. Data for this study was obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD). The basin experiences four rainfall seasons in a year as a result of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). There are two rainy seasons and two dry seasons. Annual rainfall through Linear regression analysis shows 6 stations, Kaimosi Tea Estate Ltd, Kakamega Meteorological Station, Bungoma Water Supply, Nzoia Forest Station, Malava Forest Station and Webuye Agricultural Office with declining rainfalls. The remaining 7 stations, Leissa Farm Kitale, Turbo Forest Nursery, Chorlim ADC Farm, Kaptagat Forest Station, Kimilili Agricultural Department, Bunyala Irrigation Scheme and Kadenge Yala Swamp showed increasing rainfalls. The majority of stations with increasing annual rainfall are in the upper catchment whereas those with decreasing rainfall are in the middle and lower catchment. Only 3 out of the 13 stations showed statistically significant trends in rainfall with two in the upper catchment and one in the middle; the remaining 10 stations had statistically insignificant trends. These observed changes in rainfall, although most time series are not convincing as they show predominantly no significance, along with the reported climatic warming in most parts of the basin may have future implications on human health, water resources management, various plant and animal species bio-diversity and the overall economic development of the basin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prospects for Improving Building Maintenance Management in Nigerian Public Universities: A Case Study of Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Christian I. Ohaedeghasi, Fidelis O. Ezeokoli, Nathan N. Agu, Kevin C. Okolie, Stanley C. Ugochukwu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 53-59
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i417458

Buildings are highly resourceful in the effective operation of tertiary institutions. It is imperative that these assets should be given good maintenance attention for effective performance. Public institutions have always been faced with ineffective maintenance of buildings due to bureaucratic constraints and poor maintenance culture. This study is aimed at establishing prospects for improving maintenance management and performance of buildings in public universities in Nigeria, using Nnamdi Azikiwe University as a case study. The study adopted a survey research approach using a structured questionnaire. A total of 148 responses were gotten from the Works and Services Department and Heads of academic departments out of 203 distributed questionnaires, being a 72.9% response rate. The questionnaire was analyzed using descriptive statistics technique. The study variables were examines using mean, with an acceptance benchmark of 3 and above. This implies that any issue that has the mean of the responses to be 3.0 will be regarded as “agreed”, while those whose mean of their responses are less than 3.0 will be regarded as “disagreed”. Mean and standard deviation of each item were determined, and ranking were then assigned to them. From the research findings, it is evident that there are statistically significant prospects for improving on the poor state of building maintenance management in the study area. The study therefore recommends that adoption and deployment of computerized maintenance management system that would handle all aspects of users’ reporting and feedback, scheduling and coordination of activities; intensive training and retraining program for the maintenance personnel, orientation programs for building users on healthy maintenance culture and regular building condition survey should be incorporated as prospects for improving building maintenance management in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Effects of Foreign Clay and Local Clay Additives on Viscosity of Water Based Drilling Mud

Cyprian Obinna Azinta, Gordian Onyebuchi Mbah, Monday Omotioma

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 60-67
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i417459

This research compared the viscosity and other allied rheological properties of formulated water based drilling mud using local clay (that is modified with cheap and available additives) and foreign clay. These additives (such as xanthum gum, high viscosity polyanionic cellulose (PAC-R), modified natural polyanionic cellulose (PAC-L), potassium hydroxide (KOH), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), and barite) are added to enhance/control the rheological properties (such as density, viscosity, yield point and gel strength) of the drilling mud. In this work, the viscosity and other allied rheological properties of water based mud were improved by the use of locally sourced clay from Awgu in Enugu State. The local clay was beneficiated/treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and characterized using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. The results of the characterization revealed that the local clay is more of silica which is typical of a kaolinitic clay. Local clay was examined as a possible replacement for foreign bentonite by comparing the rheological properties of water based mud (WBM) with bentonite and WBM with clay. Plastic viscosities (PV) of WBM with bentonite and WBM with clay were found to be 11.7 and 12.3 cP respectively. Other allied properties such as yield point, gel   strength, pH   and   mud   weight   of   WBM   with bentonite   and   WBM   with   clay    adequately   compared   closely.   Laboratory analyses   on the effects of three process variables (such as temperature, aging time and dosage of clay/bentonite) on the viscosity of the formulated muds were investigated. The laboratory results show that the readily available additives added to the local clay improved its viscosity and other allied rheological properties for effective drilling of oil and gas well when compared with foreign bentonite.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Implementation of Heart Beat Monitor System

F. T. Oyediji, A. O. Aluko, A. O. Adetunmbi

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 68-87
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i417460

Over the years, the decline of Nigeria’s health-care infrastructure has become alarming. The 2018 annual report of WHO shows that 75% human cardiovascular disease resulted from High Blood pressure. Immediate technical action is needed to alleviate the severity to the barest minimum. This research work presents a designs and implementation of microcontroller based Heart Beat Monitoring System for High Blood Pressure Patients. The developed system consists of three sections which include; Input section consisting of Heart beat sensor that senses and converts the blood pulse from a fingertip into an electrical signal. The sensor thereafter sends the signal into microcontroller, which is the control section that acts and communicates the result through LCD and output section. The displayed results show the beat rate in unit of beat per minute (BPM). The developed system was evaluated and demonstrated with two other standard devices namely: Pulse Oximeter and Digital Arm Cuff using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine its level of significance. The P Value of 0.519049 was found significant at 0.05 level of significance. Additionally, the results indicate that there is no significant difference among the three devices. It was concluded the designed device is more cost effective, user friendly and easily assembled due availability of needed materials in contrast with the other standard devices.