Open Access Short Research Article

Assessing the Grindability Behaviour of Anka (Zamfara State, Nigeria) Manganese Ore towards Effective Manganese Mineral Liberation

Y. E. Gbadamosi, O. O. Alabi, J. O. Borode

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 68-73
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117441

The Bond standard grindability test provides a Work Index that is widely used to estimate the energy required for ore grinding. The research investigates the work index of Anka Manganese ore at Anka deposit in Zamfara state, Nigeria. The reference ore (Quartz) was sourced from the studied ore overburden in the mine. The test ore and the reference ore were characterized using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, X - ray Diffractometer and the Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrum. 500 g each of the manganese ore and quartz were sampled and prepared by crushing and grinding to 100% passing 1200 μm sieve. 100 g of prepared ores were charged into array of sieve arranged in √2 series from 1000 μm to 63 μm. Set of sieves were mounted on the Automated Pascal Denver sieve shaker (16153) and was in operation for 20 minutes. The work index of reference ore was used to calculate the work index of the test ore using Gaudin Schuman expression to obtain a work index of 14.16 Kwh/ton for test ore and it lies within the work index of 10-15.14 Kwh/ton for manganese ore stated in the literature and the energy expended to achieve communition at mineral liberation size was calculated to be 3.3984 Kw/ton.

Open Access Original Research Article

Behavior of Self Compacted Concrete Ferrocement Beams

Abeer M. Erfan, Tamer H. K. Elafandy, Mahmoud M. Mahran, Mohamed Said

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117434

This study presents the results of an experimental investigation into the behaviour of ferrocement beams after exposure to various types of ferrocement and ferrocement layers. In the experimental programme, seven simply supported beams were tested up to failure under a four-point load. The dimensions of all specimens are 15cm×25cm×200cm. Each beam was reinforced using steel 2f12 on bottom and 2f10 on the top and therefore the stirrups were 10 f 10/m. Six beams were also strengthened with ferrocement layers and varied steel wire meshes. The test specimens are divided into three groups, and the results of each group are compared to those of the control specimen. The first group (A) used the welded wire mesh. The second group (B) used the expanded wire mesh. However, the third group (C) used woven wire mesh. The tested beams' mid-span cracks, deflection, concrete strains, and reinforcement were all measured and compared. The test beams' efficiency was evaluated in terms of energy absorption and ultimate flexure load cracking behaviour. The experimental results emphasize that high ultimate loads, better crack resistance control, high ductility, and good energy absorption properties could be achieved using the proposed ferrocement beams. The use of woven, expanded, and welded wire mesh reduced crack propagation and reduced the number and width of cracks, especially in specimens with two layers of wire mesh. Theoretical calculations were carried out in order to compare the obtained results to the theoretical ones, which were found to be in good agreement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Sandcrete Blocks Quality in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Nwabueze Michael Anosike

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117435

This study assessed the production management practice being adopted in the manufacture of quality sandcrete blocks in selected sampled parts of Owerri municipal, Imo State, Nigeria. Myriads of literature identify sandcrete blocks as a significant material being used in the building & civil engineering practice and assert that its application as a walling material cannot be over emphasized. Sandcrete block manufacturers in Owerri, Imo State were used for the assessment of the quality of their products in line with the Nigeria Industrial Standard (NIS) specifications. The study adopted field sampling, experimentations and work study methods to determine the compressive strength and water absorption rate properties of the selected sampled sandcrete blocks. The results of the study reveals among others that the mean compressive strength values obtained were as low as 1.92N/mm2, and about 17% water absorption rate from sampled commercial blocks. The results obtained did not compare favorably with the NIS specified acceptable minimum standard values. The study therefore underpinned poor production quality control practice as well as lack of impact of regulatory bodies in Imo State as among factors that contributed to the negative results obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maintenance Techniques for Cracks in Asphalt Layers

M. S. Eisa, F. S. Abdelhaleem, V. A. Khater

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117436

Treating cracks in asphalt pavements is a major stage of each maintenance work for engineers. The goal of any crack cure is to limit the water intrusion into underlying pavement structure layers. Such water infiltrates in to base layers of the pavement and may cause damage to the pavement structure. The previous studies focused on crack repairing materials and methods but not the bonding at the interface joint. In this study, the influence of the repairing materials and depth on the bonding at the interface joint using two repairing materials. Slabs were cast to simulate surface of road. Unlikely, slabs contain cracks in the middle of slab with different depths (35 mm, 50 mm, 70 mm). Consequently, these cracks were repaired with two methods; firstly, repairing them with RC+Sand and secondly, with Sika flex®-1a. The slabs were tested after being repaired to know the best method and depth. It has been concluded that slabs having cracks that have been repaired with RC+Sand increase failure load compared with empty cracks and cracks that have been repaired with Sika flex®-1a. Also, cracks with small depth that have been repaired with Sika flex®-1a increase failure load compared with empty cracks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Construction of a Microcontroller-Based Driver Alcohol Detection System (MDADS)

O. Adegoke Benjamin, F. Oladoye Stephen

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117437

Aims: Vehicle accidents on most highways had caused a lot of losses. Many sustained injuries that marred them and left families helpless. Nigeria highways are not exempted. Drunk-driving increases tendency, severity and causality of crashes. Effects of auto crash damage to lives and properties necessitated the development of the Microcontroller-based Driver Alcohol Detection System (MDADS).

Study Design: The system employed ATMega328p microcontroller (CU) which coordinated operations of 7 units that made the MDADS. The units are: Sensor Unit (SU), Switch (S), Power Unit (PU); LCD Indicating Unit (LIU), Alarm Unit (AU), DC motor (Ignition) Unit (IU) and Liquid Crystal Display Unit (LCDU).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted for 7 months in the Department of Computer Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Ile-Oluji (FEDPOLEL), Nigeria. It was conducted between October 2020 and July 2021.

Methodology: Once the MDADS is ON, it assesses presence of alcohol in the endogenous alcohol molecules from the driver with the help of the SU. The SU sends signal to CU to control and sends signal to trigger the IU, AU and the LCDU of the MDADS, if the Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) exceeds the stipulated threshold 0.29ml/l. 60s tolerance was given to driver to switch OFF the ignition. If driver refuses to comply by switching OFF the ignition, the CU sends a “SWITCH OFF” signal to the IU, the LCDU displays “Drunk” and the buzzer continuously sounds alarm. The designed system was tested and parameters for evaluation were taken. The parameters among other includes True Acceptance Rate (TAR), False Acceptance Rate (FAR), Unable to Accept Rate (UAR) and Detection Accuracy (DA),

Results: TAR were 0.81, 0.79, and 0.77 for man, alcoholic drinks and herbal mixture respectively. FAR were 0.03, 0.00, and 0.00 for man, alcoholic drinks and herbal mixture, respectively. For human being, Precision (P) and Recall concept (R) were 0.04 and 0.15 respectively while for P and R for others were negligible.

Conclusion: The results reveals that the system can be profitably employed for and improved safety on the highways through precise warning before “switching off” of car engine. A further design should be done to differentiate vividly between drunk drivers and presence of other alcoholic substances such as drugs that contain some alcoholic contents, petrol, methylated spirit and alcoholic drinks.

Open Access Review Article

The Future and Prospects of Periwinkle Composites in Reinforced Concretes: A Review

Nkwoada Amarachi, Onyedika Gerald, Oguzie Emeka, Ogwuegbu Martin

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 49-67
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i117439

The choice of building materials and the rising cost of construction materials have continued to plaque the building and construction industry without an immediate solution. Industrialists and scholars are investigating several naturally occurring materials for concrete composite reinforcements. The article chronologically reviewed the growth and development of periwinkle shell powder (PSP) and periwinkle ash powder (PSA) as composite materials in concretes. Findings showed that 28 days of curing age are required for lightweight concretes reinforced with PSP or PAP at 10-30% optimum. Produced lightweight concretes were susceptible to acidic medium and induce lower compressive strength which eventually leads to concrete/structure disintegrate and collapse. Research challenges and funding hamper the application of PSP/PAP in the concrete formulation and are unable to drive innovations and economic benefits as a composite. Advances in concrete technology showed that PSP/PSA mollusk shells achieve pillar strength grade and weight/load bearing status for the improvement of PSP/PSA blended concretes. Also, the composite potential showed that the functionalization of PSP/PSA, sustainability, and nano modification of cementitious materials and concretes are promising. Future studies are required to develop periwinkle reinforced concrete silos, sewers, and smart concrete materials with improved mechanical, thermal, and aesthetic properties.