Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Artificial Neural Network in Determining Performance Profile of Compression Ignition Engine Operated with Orange Peel Oil-Based Biodiesel

Samson Kolawole Fasogbon, Chukwuemeka Uguba Owora

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217416

Literature including one of our previous studies have confirmed the environmental friendliness of orange peeled oil biodiesel (OPOB) when applied to run compression ignition (CI) heat engines. There is also high degree of compatibility of physicochemical properties of OPOB with fossil diesel.  However, there is limited knowledge on its performance indices in the same heat engines. This perhaps may have been due to few interests shown by researchers in the area or obviously due to difficult time and other quantum resources required in conducting the rigorous engine tests. To this end, this work conducted experimental study of performance profile of OPOB in direct injection CI engine; and afterwards applied artificial neural networks (ANNs) to ascertain the engine brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) and brake specific energy consumptions (BSEC). The ANN utilized the Levenberg Marquardt (LM), Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) and Gradient Descent with Momentum and Adaptive Learning (GDX) training algorithms for the performance prediction. The choice of the three algorithms was to effect better comparative assessment. The input variables of the neural network were brake load, orange oil-diesel mixture percentages and engine speed. Statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient (R), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) were employed to investigate the performance of the neural networks. Among the three training algorithms, the Levenberg Marquardt trained algorithm estimated the BTE and BSEC with highest precision and accuracy; and lowest error rates. From the study, it is concluded that the performance profile of compression ignition heat engines operated with orange peel biodiesel compares favourably with fossil diesel. It also affirmed that Artificial Neural Network is a reliable tool in the prediction of performance indices of compression ignition engines when run with orange-peel oil based biodiesel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi Sensor Image Fusion Using Stationary Wavelet Transform and Feature Extraction from Gabor Filter and GLCM Texture

N. Jeebaratnam, Jharna Majumdar

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217417

Image Fusion is a process of adding information obtained from various sensors and intelligent systems. This provides an image which containing complete information. In this process we fuse images of the same scene one is Infrared Image and other is visible image to produce an image that contains more information. In this the Infrared which are low resolution and noisy nature of image and visual image fused using Stationary wavelet transfer algorithm. In this we have used Gabor filter and GLCM to extract feature and compared the two feature extraction method using quality matrix parameters and found which method is the best method of fusion. The fusion is used in satellite image fusion which mostly used in maps also for decision-making process involved in interpreting images from multi sensor data. Images of several different targets (a military vehicle, a wood chipper, a pickup truck, and people) were used to assess how human subjects view and interpret different types of images. The premise is that combining complementing data from several sensors will result in more accurate findings for data processing difficulties. Although significant progress has been achieved in this sector, complete modeling of the human brain remains a distant objective.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Flexural Behavior of Ferrocement Composite Hollow-Cored Sections

Yousry B. I. Shaheen, Zeinab A. Etman, Aya M. Elrefy

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 26-41
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217418

This study will study the influence of several types of metal and non-metal mesh reinforcement materials on the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete hollow-cored sections as a viable alternative to traditional reinforced concrete sections. Compared with the traditional reinforced concrete part, the weight of the test part is lighter. In order to strengthen these hollow-cored sections, three types of steel mesh, Welded wire mesh, expanded steel wire mesh and tenax mesh with various layers are used. An intensive experiment plan was carried out on the test samples. Ten slabs with dimensions of 500 mm*2000 mm*120 mm were cast and tested until they failed under flexural load. Record and observe the deformation characteristics and cracking behavior of each sample during the loading process. According to the results, high ultimate load and serviceability load, crack resistance control, high ductility and strong energy absorption characteristics have been obtained. This has the chance to be a true construction benefit to developed and poor countries. The use of double-layer of expanded steel mesh as the additional reinforcement of the main steel can achieve the best performance of the reinforced concrete hollow-cored section.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Pine Shaped Dual-Band Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna

Shikha Sahu, Harish Chandra Mohanta

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 42-52
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217419

In recent years reconfigurable antennas have attracted a lot of attention in modern wireless communication systems. In satellite communication and ECM system, there has always been a continuous demand for smaller size, lighter weight antenna system that has properties to accomplish selectivity in frequency, bandwidth, polarization and gain. A frequency reconfigurable antenna is proposed for wireless communication. We can achieve Frequency reconfiguration by modifying physical or electrical dimensions of the antenna using RF-switches, impedance loading or tunable material. The design and simulation of the proposed antennas are done using ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS) version-19. The proposed antenna is taken as a triangular shape whose length and width are 50mm and 25mm respectively. Here reconfigurability is achieved by RF switches placed in the radiator. The antenna analysis is done by taking different conditions of the switch. Total four switching condition is simulated and for each case, distinctive resonating frequencies are accomplished with acceptable reflection coefficient. The frequency bands of the antenna are varied from 2.12 GHz to 5.27 GHz. This antenna covers S-band and C band. After simulating the design the gain and efficiency of the antenna are verified successfully. Antenna fabrication and measurement of different parameters will be done in future. A comparison of the measured result will be analyzed with some existing antenna outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Neural Network Algorithm in Propylene Distillation

Jinwei Lu, Ningrui Zhao

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 53-63
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217420

Artificial neural network modeling does not need to consider the mechanism. It can map the implicit relationship between input and output and predict the performance of the system well. At the same time, it has the advantages of self-learning ability and high fault tolerance. The gas-liquid two phases in the rectification tower conduct interphase heat and mass transfer through countercurrent contact. The functional relationship between the product concentration at the top and bottom of the tower and the process parameters is extremely complex. The functional relationship can be accurately controlled by artificial neural network algorithms. The key components of the propylene distillation tower are the propane concentration at the top of the tower and the propylene concentration at the bottom of the tower. Accurate measurement of them plays a key role in increasing propylene yield in ethylene production enterprises. This article mainly introduces the development process of neural network model and its application progress in propylene distillation tower.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Spatio-Temporal Soil Moisture Variability in Semi-Arid Rangeland Ecosystem, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya

Charles C. Kapkwang, Japheth O. Onyando, Peter M. Kundu, Joost Hoedjes

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 64-90
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217421

Aim: To evaluate the spatio-temporal soil moisture storage and retention capacities in semi-arid rangeland ecosystem, Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR), Kenya

Study Design: Randomized complete block design (RCBD) of reference Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) station, ten-(10) spatially distributed (soil moisture and temperature capacitance) probes (5TM-ECH20) sites.

Place and Duration of Study: Kenya, MMNR, the oldest natural semi-arid rangeland ecosystem and globally unique for the great wildebeest migration, between May 2017 and April 2019.

Methodology: Soil moisture (SM) variation data was collected using (CRNS) at spatial and point-scale 5TM-ECH2O probes, and gravimetric water content from (10) spatially distributed stations. Both CRNS and 5TM-ECH2O probes were used to monitor near-real time moisture levels at different soil layers ranging between 0-5cm, 5-10cm, 15-20cm, 35-40cm, and 75-80cm. Soil physical and chemical properties were laboratory analyzed. Calibration and validation datasets were obtained from 5TM-ECH2O probe and gravimetric soil samples extracted from respective layers and sites.

Results: The pedological characteristics of the investigated ecosystem soil profile indicate decreased bulk density by 2.1% to 11.12% from upper layers (0-5cm) to deeper layers at (75–80 cm). Across the rangeland, 70% of soil textural classes were sandy clay loam (SCL) with higher clay percent and 30% sandy clay (SC) and soil porosity varied between 30.1% and 51% in the ecosystem. Moreover, volumetric



 water content (VWC) of spatially distributed 5TM-ECH2O probes ranged between 0.11m3m-3 and 0.32m3m-3 during wet season with mean VWC of 0.16m3m-3, however, the VWC ranged between 0.04 m3m-3 and 0.17m3m-3 during the dry season with a mean volume of 0.11m3m-3 across the rangeland ecosystem.

Conclusion: In this study, SM exhibited an annual periodicity of seasonal variation of spatial and temporal moisture partitioned as moisture gaining, losing, and a moisture stable period. This probably could be a consequence of increased movement of water to deeper layers caused by high precipitation and less evaporative demand caused by lower temperatures. The calibrated CRNS probe provided good estimates of spatial soil moisture variation when calibrated with 5TM-ECH20 and gravimetric sampling in relation to precipitation events and that deeper soil layers showed higher amount of soil moisture than shallow layers. The findings of the study will provide better formulation of the ecosystem vegetation management policies, conservation and planning for sustainable wildlife tourism industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Study on Propagation of Ice Breaking Shock Waves in Process of Breaking Ice by Double-Layer Charge Blasting

Xuemei Zhang, Yuanli Wu, Zhigang Xie, Chaosong Kong, Zhizong Tian

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 91-98
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217422

The ice-breaking process of the double-layer charge at a depth of 150 cm underwater is simulated by LS-DYNA. This paper analyzes the load type, shock wave pressure characteristics and propagation behavior of the double-layer charge during underwater explosion. By analyzing the impact of the shock wave pressure in the water under different charge intervals and time intervals on the shock wave pressure of the double charge, it is concluded that the peak pressure of the double charge explosion shock wave is jointly determined by the double charge. In this range, the second peak pressure value of the drug is greater than the pressure value of the first peak of the drug, and the attenuation is slow; the delay time of the upper charge has little effect on the peak pressure value of the shock wave in the water; the delay time is higher than that of the lower charge Initiation, at the same position, the total pressure peak of the shock wave formed by the delay of the upper charge is larger.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Heat treatment on the Chemical and Microstructural Properties of Wheat Straw Ash (WSA)

Muhammad Ishfaq, Akhtar Gul, Malik Hammad Naseer

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 99-108
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217423

This study examines the effects of different burning temperature on the chemical and microstructure properties of WSA. In many parts of the world due to non-availability of proper technology, the farmers generally burn wheat straw after acquiring grains, which causing environmental pollution with fire hazards at farm level and loss valuable commodity. In this research, the influence of different temperature on locally available Wheat Straw in Province KP, Pakistan was study. This research aim to find optimum temperature and burning duration of WSA by examine chemical and microstructural properties of WSA at 550oC for 4 hr, 550oC for 8 hr and 800oC for 30 min. The tests results were categorized through X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The result showing the 550oC for 4 hr contains high amount of (SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3) and amorphous nature as compared to other samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eucalyptus Pulp Fibers with In-Situ Precipitated Calcium Carbonate – A 12-Inch Laboratory Paper Machine Study

Klaus Dölle, Bardhyl Bajrami

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 109-125
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217424

Paper manufacturing on a global scale is a highly competitive market which requires to constantly improve the manufacturing process to be competitive. To decrease production cost paper manufactures, add filler material prior to sheet forming to replace costly wood fiber based raw material.

This research project investigates the use of in-situ precipitated calcium carbonate produced in the presence of eucalyptus fiber material at a 41.0% filler level prior to beating. The in-situ filler containing eucalyptus fiber suspension was used on a 12’ (304mm) wide Laboratory Fourdrinier Paper Machine together with non-filler containing eucalyptus fiber material, and a commercial precipitated calcium carbonate filler material.

The manufactured in-situ fiber suspension resulted in a higher ash retention compared to the addition of the powdered commercial PCC filler material. In addition to commercial filler material retention is improved at higher filler addition above 30%.

The increased ash retention is linked to the increased micro fibrillation fiber material of the in-situ filler-fiber suspension forming neckless like particles on the fibers microfibrils.

Mechanical paper properties showed an improvement for in-situ precipitated filler material compared to commercial filler material addition.

Optical properties could be improved in comparison to the eucalyptus fiber without filler addition for in-situ precipitated filler material and a combination of in-situ and commercial filler material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Research on the N02 Gas Monitoring System Based on MCU

Efta Khairul Haque Emon, Lu Lianxu, Zhihua Zhao, Nusrat Jahan

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 126-142
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217425

The harm of nitrogen dioxide is not limited to the great impact on the atmosphere, environmental safety and even harms human, animal, and plant life. Damage to devices and buildings can cause industrial accidents, huge property losses, and even cause casualties. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has attracted much attention as a toxic gas with high content, many sources, and greater hazards in the air. In recent years, with the development of industry and the emission of a large amount of automobile exhaust, the emission of nitrogen dioxide has been increasing every year. The air emission in the potential nitrogen dioxide emission area should be treated in time, and the emission must be carried out at a concentration that meets the standard. Only by detecting the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the emission site at all times can the gas be effectively treated. The inspection system has been designed, it is still inadequate in many aspects. For example, the system takes a bit long time to warm up, and the solder joints are prone to poor contact. In future research, there can be two main research directions: 1. Improve the writing ability of C language to improve the stability of the detection system. 2. Find and synthesize more stable gas-sensitive materials to improve the sensitivity of the signal acquisition system and the accuracy of detection. Although the system has worked accurately and met the requirements, there is still a long way to go for future research, and more in-depth research on the product is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges to Health and Safety Compliance for Construction Projects in South East, Nigeria

C. A. Emma-Ochu, K. C. Okolie, C. I. Ohaedeghasi

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 162-168
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217427

The aim of this research is to establish the challenges to health and safety compliance for construction projects in South East Nigeria. This study which is essentially survey based and empirical collected quantitative and qualitative data through questionnaire survey and field observations. The questionnaires were administered to indigenous construction firms and professionals in the construction projects in Abia, Anambra, Imo, Enugu and Ebonyi States of the South East area of Nigeria which are the study population. The tools used for data analysis were Regression using Friedman Q Test Ranking and crosstab. The findings revealed that the challenges to health and safety compliance in South East Nigeria are bribery and corruption, ignorance of the benefits of compliance, lack of health and safety culture, perception of stakeholders, neglect of human rights and moral values, non-commitment of the major construction players, inadequate training of staff and lack of skilled health and safety personnel, non-inclusion of health and safety in contract document and tendering process and inadequate funding. This study concludes that the lack of awareness and understanding of health and safety significantly hinders compliance to health and safety. The study therefore recommends that using enforcement in form of incentives based approach will equally take care of the identified different challenges to Health and Safety Compliance in South East, Nigeria. Furthermore, the health and safety regulations should not be enforced only through inspections and sanctions, rather there should be economic incentives to encourage and motivate self- compliance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Implementation of a Low-cost Automatic Dual-axis Solar Tracker through Hardware/Software Embedded Program Control

Louis Tersoo Abiem, Clement Olufemi Akoshile, Taiye Benjamin Ajibola

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 169-176
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217428

A solar tracker is a system that is used for the mechanical orientation of solar payloads (collectors and photovoltaic panels) towards the sun. A simple, low-cost, but effective open-loop dual axis solar tracking system was developed in this work. The tracker is an embedded system that consists of a microcontroller integrated with other components in an electronic circuit to coordinate the activities of the circuit in driving out and in the motor shafts of electrically powered linear actuators used to move the payload. The work is divided into two parts: hardware and software. The hardware part consists of two movable (tilting and axial moving) rectangular frames fixed together and used to hold the payload and two electrically powered linear actuators (jacks) used to move the rectangular frames in the tilting and axial directions. The software part was a code written in the C programming language following an algorithm developed from measured parameters of the jacks and the sun’s position and embedded into a microcontroller. The testing of the dual-axis solar tracker was done by measuring a parabolic trough collector’s position with respect to the sun hour angles and solar declination angles and comparing the values with the calculated angles for two days. The results obtained showed that the tracker followed the sun with deviation of ±2o (percentage errors that ranged between 0.01% and 3.26%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Snake Gourd Seed Decorticating Machine

D. O. Idowu, O. K. Owolarafe

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 177-192
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217432

Aims: A snake gourd seeds sheller which comprises of hopper, decorticating chamber, and the cleaning chamber was designed, fabricated and evaluated in this study.

Methodology: A 3-level factorial response surface methodology (RSM) of design expert version 6.0.8 of 2002 was used to identify the relationship between the response functions and the process variables of the device. The factors considered are shaft speed (300, 350, 400 rpm), soaking time (8, 15, and 20 minutes.), hammer diameter (115, 135 and 150 mm) and feed rate (90, 120, 150 kg/hr.) in the determination of shelling efficiency while air speed (2, 4, and 6 m/s) and angle of air injection (20, 40, 600) were used in the determination of cleaning efficiency.

 Results: The shelling efficiency was observed to increase with increase in hammer speed, hammer diameter and soaking time but decreased with increase in machine feed rate. The maximum shelling efficiency of 97.61% was recorded when the soaking time is 20 minutes, hammer speed is 400 rpm, hammer diameter is 150 mm and feeding rate is 90 kg/hr. The cleaning efficiency increases with increase in air speed and angle of air injection. The cleaning efficiency of the machine was found to be 92.5 % when the angle of injection and air speed is 600 and 5.0 m/s respectively. The effect of the speed and the angle of injection was found to be significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The study concluded that with the result of the performance evaluation of the machine, it is suitable for inclusion in the process line for the seed and hence its potential could be harnessed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Auto Thermal Control Device For Space Air - Conditioning

Akinde Olusola Kunle, Maduako Kingsley Obinna, Akande, Kunle Akinyinka, Adeaga Oyetunde Adeoye

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 193-204
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217433

Auto Thermal Control device is an electronic based device which employs the application of temperature sensors to controlling household appliances without human interference directly. In this work, thermal source is used to regulate electrical fan and room heater depending on ambient temperature. The room heater, which is adjusted to a set temperature, switches ‘ON’ when the temperature of a room is low (cold). While the same is switches ‘OFF’ with increase in the room temperature. This triggers ‘ON’ an electric fan at different speeds, and thus cools the room. A temperature sensor, tthermistor, monitors change in room temperature. Two types of thermistor exists: Positive Temperature Coefficient, PTC. An increasee in the resistance of PTC results in increasee in temperature). In the Negative Temperature Coefficient, NTC; a decreasee in resistance yields to temperature increase. This article explored a NTC thermistor. The design could be a ready product in the market of the developing nation where environmental automation is yet fully deployed.

Open Access Review Article

Renewable Energy: Sources, Integration and Application: Review Article

Osumanu Musah Mohammed

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 143-161
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1217426

Renewable technologies are technically viable and economically attractive; traditional energy technology receives many investment dollars. This study examines the integration of renewable energy sources using functions that associate emissions with power generation; traditional producing units can represent these emissions. The environment friendly design has become a significant concern in the first decade of the 21st century. As a result of climate change and a limited supply of traditional energy sources (fossil fuel), the world needs to take renewable energy seriously. Renewable sources of energy are derived from the energy flow that occurs naturally in a continual manner. Many people define renewability as the ability to regenerate at a rate equal to or faster than a given energy source's depletion rate. Currently, fossil fuels are used to meet most energy needs, which should be replaced in the future by cleaner energy sources, such as renewables or nuclear energy. Building integration systems aim to replace a building element with a solar panel array to boost the RES system's viability. Renewable energy sources can be used to lessen the use of fossil fuels when certain criteria are satisfied. The use of renewable energy sources in buildings has well-understood environmental and economic benefits in this study. By relying on sustainable sources of energy, we can save as much energy as feasible.