Open Access Case study

Comparison Study between Theoritical and Numerical Analyses for Ball Bearing

Badr H. Bedairi, Ahmed B. Khoshaim, Badr S. Azzam

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117402

In this paper, a comparison study has been presented to see the difference between the theoretical and finite element analysis for ball bearing. Throughout that study, a finite element analysis is performed to determine the maximum contact pressure and maximum stresses induced in the bearing components; rolling elements and rings. Another purpose of this analysis is to validate the most critical zones in the bearing for knowing the scenario of generating this stress and pressure which enabling the specialists to determine the initiation point for failure in the bearing. The comparison between the results of the numerical study with theoretical one has showed the good agreement outputs of this numerical study. In addition, this analysis could give the displacements and deformations that raised in the bearing elements at the highest critical zones.

Open Access Short Research Article

Using Element Birth and Death Technique in Modeling Cumulative Molded Substrate Expansion before Singulation

Jefferson Talledo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 90-99
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117412

Semiconductor packages are commonly assembled and molded in array format on a substrate strip before they are singulated into individual units. However, cumulative substrate expansion causes problems such as machine vacuum error or misaligned cut during singulation if the substrate expansion is not factored in. This study uses element birth and death technique in modeling the overall expansion of the molded substrate strip so that the predicted expansion could be considered in the singulation tooling design offsets. The expansion of the substrate was modeled with the different package assembly processes and thermal conditions. Modeling results showed that there is a cumulative increase in the length of the substrate as it passes through the different processes. The results are in agreement with actual substrate expansion prior to package singulation. This would not be captured when simulation is done only for the molded substrate without considering the cumulative contribution of the preceding processes. With the element birth and death technique in process-based thermomechanical modeling, substrate expansion could already be forecasted, and package assembly problems avoided.

Open Access Minireview Article

Enchancement of GSC Using OFDM and QAM Over Reiyleign Fading Channel: A Review

Hammed Oyebamiji Lasisi, Funmilola Margaret Adeagbo, Bolatito Fatimah Aderinkola

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 108-114
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117414

As indispensable as communication has been to human endeavors, geographical and physical distance would have been a barrier to its effective deployment if not for the advent of wireless mobile communication. In the world today, most of the developments we see in all spheres of our modern life are influenced by communication technologies. However, the performance of each modulation scheme deployed in the communication system dictates the Quality of Service (QoS), effective cost management, efficient power, available bandwidth, Bit Error Rate (BER), and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Extensive research has been done with different authors proffering wide ranging solutions for generalized selection combining (GSC) algorithms in the presence of noise and interfering signals. Some of the reported approaches include varying modulation schemes, changing the channel, and using different equalizing techniques. Many of these proposed solutions worked effectively in some areas while they understandably left other areas untouched, others show better performance by analyzing the channel using; Log-likelihood Ratio (LLR), integral expression, and multiple-mode transmission scheme which in turns proof to be of better performance with a good result. Despite all the efforts, overcoming the issue of noise interference in the communication channel has still been somewhat elusive. Conclusively, to reduce noise to the barest minimum in mobile/cellular communication, this review proposes modulation scheme synchronization with combined diversity technique over an improved channel that is less prone to noise.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Egg Shell Composition on the Flexural and Hardness Properties of Epoxy Resin/ Egg Shell Particles Composite

I. C. C. Iloabachie, O. T. Ajina, A. C. Chime

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117398

The effect of calcined egg shell particles on the mechanical properties of epoxy resin had been studied. The egg shell was sun dried for 3 days and calcined at 800oC in an electrically fired furnace model KGVB. The calcined egg shell was ground in a locally fabricated pulverized machine and sieved using Sieve Model 567924/173281Endecotts in accordance with ASTM standard. Microwave digestion system and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) were used to determine the chemical composition of the egg shell. The egg shell particles were mixed with epoxy resin to develop a composite casted by open mold casting. The flexural and hardness properties of the developed composite was determined using Universal Testing Machine model TUE-C-100, observing ASTM D790 standard and Rockwell Scale K hardness testing machine according to ASTM D785 respectively. The results showed that the calcined egg shell contained mostly CaO. Maximum flexural strength of 12MPa was observed at 25 wt. % egg shell particles. The highest hardness value of HRN 393 was observed at 20 wt. % egg shell particles. The produced composites may be applied where moderate strength is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hybrid Method of Video Shot Segmentation Based on YCbCr Space Color Model

Sasmita Kumari Nayak, Jharna Majumdar

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 8-17
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117399

In this digital world, Video analysis is the most important and useful task. Currently, tremendous tasks have been done in video analysis like compressing the videos, video retrieval process and video database indexing, etc. For all these tasks, one common step is segmenting the video shots, which are referred to as Video Shots Segmentation (VSS). Video shots segmentation is used to segment the input videos into a number of frames sequentially where the scene changes occurred, i.e. called shots. In this article, segmenting the video shots follows a hybrid procedure. Here, we have introduced the moments of colors, distance metrics and threshold techniques. All the videos follow the above mentioned steps for segmenting the video shots. But, before that, the input video is converted into a specific color model i.e. YCbCr. Then, apply the color moments to extract the feature vectors of frames, which are differentiated based on the color features of frames. In every two frames of the video, distance metrics methods are applying to compute the similarity and dissimilarity of frames. And the dissimilarity of the frames can be computed by using the threshold technique to get the shots from the video. In this paper, we are using the adaptive threshold technique to segment the videos into various shots. In this step, we will get a true number of shots. By the experimental results, this proposed methodology can be evaluated with the sequence of videos based on the performance or evaluation metrics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Al-SiC/Gr Particulate Produced by Stir Casting Technique

L. O. Mudashiru, I. A. Babatunde, S. O. Adetola, O. I. Kolapo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117401

Stir casting is an economical process for the production of aluminum matrix composites. There are many parameters in this process, which affect the final microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites. In this study, micron-sized SiC and Gr particles were used as reinforcement to fabricate Al-SiC/Gr composites at holding temperature of 700 ± 5 °C for 5 min at 350 rev/min stirring speed. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of the composites show improvement compared with pure aluminum-matrix. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) of the as-cast composites shows that the vortex formations within the melt eliminates the agglomeration of the particles and improve the wettability phenomenon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Slag as Partial Replacement of Cement on Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Mohamed Nabil, Ashraf Essa, Magdy Mahmoud, Mohamed Rabah

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 34-40
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117403

The increasing demand and consumption of cement have necessitated the use of slag, fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA), and so forth as a supplement of cement in concrete construction. The aim of the study is to develop a replacement of the cement with rice husk ash and slag combined with chemical activator. NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and KOH were used in varying weights and molar concentrations. Partial replacement of cement was tested for its consistency, setting time, flow, compressive strength, and fire. The consistency and setting time of the Partial Z-Cement (Zero cement) paste increase with increasing RHA content. The replacement of cement mortar achieves a compressive strength of 22–25MPa at  28 days with 5% NaOH or at 2.5or non used activator molar concentrations. The tested slabs were made of concrete and reinforced with bars with 10 mm diameter having and compressive strength evaluated from the compressive tests. The analysis of the slab deflection behavior has been presented after fire of samples. The results show the different character of the load-deflection relationship of a replacement of the cement with rice husk ash and slag reinforced slabs compared to traditionally reinforced slabs.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Wastewater Treatment of Wet Coffee Processing in an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor Pretreated with Electro Coagulation

Asha Gururaj, B. Manoj Kumar

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117404

The interest for improving the quality of coffee production has led to the increased use of wet processing so as to highlight the quality and aroma of the beverage. The coffee pulping process has been causing environmental problems at the local level not only due to the consumption of water, but more due to the discharge of effluents with large volumes of organic waste.  The wet processing generates enormous quantity of wastewater which causes irrepairable damage to the receiving water bodies.  Indispensable. However, physico chemical treatment method coupled with biological treatment as proved effective treatment mode for safe and proper disposal of the wastewater generated.  In this sense, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of electrocoagulation batch reactor as pretreatment for anaerobic sequencing batch reactor to treat coffee processing wastewater. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Digital Exhaust Controller for Pressure Detection on Die Attach Oven Curing Machine

Rogel Dela Rosa, Jerome J. Dinglasan, Frederick Ray Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 62-68
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117406

Innovation on die attach curing process on semiconductor industry play a big role to have a robust process eliminating unwanted gross unit rejection. Resolving failures and hardware breakdowns on the exhaust system of oven curing process are the focus of this paper. Discoloration and contamination due to outgas and fumes that cannot exit the oven chamber are the effects of a failed exhaust system. Addressing the said phenomenon showing simulations, trial runs will be discussed on this paper. Promoting an innovative approach that includes real time monitoring of the system performance, and detection of its failure to prevent continuous operation with failed exhaust system are performed to have an appropriate resolution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhanced Ball Shear Testing Configuration For Substrate LGA Sensor Devices

Richard G. Mariano, Marciano M. Maniebo, Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 69-73
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117407

Semiconductor assembly mass production environment has means of testing and verifying bond consistency and reliability during wire bonding. Common bond integrity assessment is ball shear testing (BST). This test enables analysis of the strength between the bond pad and a ball bond. This paper presents significant procedure on how ball shear testing parameters should be treated during wirebond integrity check. Device complexity in terms of performing ball shear testing specifically on sensor dice has different output responses. Frequent shearing on die resulted as bond pads are elevated by 30 µm (microns). To address manufacturing in-process controls challenges, shearing tool position, dage settings, and optical scopes are taken into consideration. Also, a study was performed on the execution correctness in combination with proper dage parameters was explored to meet good ball shear test process capability and break modes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Corn Drying System

A. A. Ijah, O. E. Olagunju, S. M. Adamu, H. C. Ozoani, F. M. Rasheed, J. O. Emmanuel, T. S. Ingoroko, O. W. Bolaji, O. Olukotun

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 74-79
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117408

Corn as a staple farm produce are usually harvested at a point or time when the moisture content is more than 25% (wet.basis).,and therefore, it is easily attacked by fungi and other diseases causing organism and even physical damage, thereby reducing the market value of the crop.  Drying must be carried out on those products to prevent deterioration. The objectives of this research are to develop a device that can reduce the moisture content of corn using electronic components and equally carryout evaluation on the device.  Shelled corns with initial moisture content of between 25-30% (w.b.) is the major material used in this research work. A Heating element incorporated in the device supplied the needed heat which was delivered to the drying chamber by the help of a centrifugal blower. The drying experiment was carried out at three different temperature thus; 45 oC, 55 oC and 65oC. The moisture content at this varying temperature was used to determine the drying rate and the drying efficiency. The results showed clearly that the dryer air temperature affect the drying rate, the efficiency of drying, and the quality of the material. It is equally clear that the best drying rate and temperature is  65oC average 4,95% / hour, high efficient at drying temperature 55oC and 65oC equal to 86,27% and 83,51%, and best material quality with dryer temperature 55oC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Voltage Stability Evaluation in the Nigeria 44 Bus Grid Network using Modal Analysis

E. N. Aneke, B. E. Ibekwe, J. C. Iyidobi, E. N. C. Okafor

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 80-89
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117411

This paper focused on the application of modal analysis method to determine the voltage stability of the Nigeria 44 bus 330kV transmission grid network and to determine the network’s weakest buses. Modal method calculates the smallest eigenvalue and all the associated eigenvectors of the reduced Jacobian matrix, JR using steady state mode. The network model was developed in PSAT-MATLAB and load flow was performed on the network. Results and analysis showed that the Nigeria 44 Bus grid network was found to be unstable as the modal analysis revealed the presence of eigenvalue with a negative real part. Gombe, Damaturu and Yola buses were also discovered to be the vulnerable buses since their voltage profile fell below the IEEE standard voltage level of (0.95-1.05) pu. Yola bus was spotted as the weakest bus based on the analysis of the participating factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maintenance Performance Evaluation and Downtime Analysis of Manufacturing Equipment in a Food Manufacturing Company

N. C. Igbokwe, H. C. Godwin

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 100-107
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117413

In food manufacturing, maintenance of manufacturing equipment is one of the most important essentials for an efficient manufacturing as this sector continuously face challenges that makes maintenance very critical due to the nature of manufacturing, thus as a result food manufacturing companies must add or modify their maintenance strategies in order to keep production running efficiently. The aim of this study is to carry out a maintenance performance evaluation and downtime analysis in a food manufacturing company and suggest areas for further improvement. In this study, an empirical case study was carried out in order to evaluate the maintenance performance and downtime analysis. Overall equipment effectiveness and Pareto analysis were used to carry out a maintenance performance evaluation and downtime analysis on the manufacturing equipment using three years historical data obtained from the food manufacturing company as an industrial case study.  The study found that the average overall equipment effectiveness is 55.30% which is a low value when compared with Overall Equipment Effectiveness world standards, meaning that the manufacturing organisation is operating in an average condition and there is a required urgent improvement of maintenance policies and strategies, otherwise it will be difficult for the manufacturing organisation to sustain it. Thus it is necessary that in order to improve productivity, the manufacturing organisation under study should look into its manufacturing strategies so that urgent improvement of maintenance policies and strategies can be implemented and adopted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficient Power Response Characteristics of 2KVA Low Cost Inverter under Resistive Loads and Inductive Loads

O. O. Anyanor, A. O. C. Nwokoye, O. A. Ikenga, C. C. Emeregonu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 115-127
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117415

The paper discussed the design of low cost inverter using SG3525A IC and IRF3205 MOSFET in H-Bridge configuration. The implementation of the real construction involved the use of IC SG3525A for generation of output pulses; the totem pole arrangement of transistors was used in the driver section of the inverter to boost signals as well as switching purposes. The H-bridge configuration was employed to effectively switch the four MOSFETs, this switching produced an alternating potential of 220V. Pre-set conditions such as load condition, low battery cut, overcharge cut and constant output were set at 1700W, 10V, 13.3V and 220V respectively so as to ensure effective and long lasting usage of the inverter. The battery used for the operation of the inverter was 12V maintenance free battery in order to reduce the cost of using the inverter. The various tests carried out on this inverter were tests on inductive loads, resistive loads, home appliances, overload condition, low battery and charging control. The aim of this work is to achieve inverter design analysis under resistive loads and inductive loads for efficient power usage at lowest possible cost. This was achieved by connecting various resistive and inductive loads on the inverter. The results show that the system can operate under both the resistive and inductive loads but operates better under resistive loads, the reason for this is that inductive loads always draw large currents during start-ups which always result to power losses.

Graphs were plotted and analyzed; the results also showed that this inverter can take up to 1700W of resistive load and inductive load of 1020W. The inverter produced no humming sound from inductive loads and home appliances such as fan, television, refrigerator e.t.c that were within its maximum capacity of 1700W.

Open Access Review Article

Coffee Processing Wastewater Management: An Overview

Asha Gururaj, B. Manoj Kumar, K. N. Achyuth, B. R. Manoj

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 52-61
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1117405

Globally, one amongst the major agro-based industry contributing significantly is Coffee. Coffee growing estates use water for pulping and the wastewater generated from coffee pulping activity is generally discharged to the water bodies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of effluents from traditional wet coffee processing plants on the water quality. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. The wet processing produces a drink of higher quality and has the advantage of reducing the drying space area and time required. However, this preparation step generates high volume of coffee wastewater as it involves utilizing large volumes of water with concurrent generation of wastewater. Throughout wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater. The so generated wastewater is characterized by high concentrations of organic matter, low pH, nutrients, suspended matter associated with odor and dark color with high chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand requiring systematic treatment before disposal. The inadequate disposal of the coffee wastewater into environment directly without proper management and handling will pose aa pollution risk to receiving water body. Efforts have made by various researchers to evolve an alternative method for the treatment of coffee pulping waste and the same is discussed in this paper.