Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Transmission Coefficients and Energy Density of an Overlay Microstrip Patch Antenna for Microwave Filters and Feeds Designs Using Microwave Methods

Abubakar Yakubu, Zulkifly Abbas, Suleiman Sahabi

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v15i217139

In designing filters and antenna feeds at microwave frequency, the energy density and stop bands are of vital importance. To this development, this work is set out to determine the transmission coefficients behavior of substrates along with their energy density for a microstrip structure using finite element method (FEM) and Vector network analyzer (VNA). In this work, a 15, 30 and 50 mm PTFE samples were used as an overlay substrate material on a patch microstrip antenna. Simulations and measurement were then carried using FEM and VNA, respectively. Transmission coefficient obtained via FEM and VNA were compared and the behavior of the substrates at 10 GHz were noted which is the area of broad stop band. Results from simulation and measurement showed that the energy density of the 50 mm thick substrates was 1.67 x 10-5 J/m3 while the attenuated power for the 15, 30 and 50 mm thick substrates at 10 GHz were 6.8, 8.0 and 14.6 dB, respectively. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the 50 mm thick PTFE substrates has the deepest stopband at 10 GHz and more suitable for filter designs and antenna feeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Online Detection and Extraction of FECG Signals Using ICA: A Comparative Study

Mohammed Sheikh, Majdi Marai, Roiss Alhutaish

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v15i217140

In this paper a new study to detect fetal heart rate (F H R) online from abdominal electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, which are extracted by three different algorithms of independent component analysis ICA (AMUSE, EVD2 and SOBI) is presented. Four stages for fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) extraction and detection is proposed. After preprocessing and (FECG) extraction by ICA, maternal QRS complex removal window is used to remove or scale down the maternal remaining peaks, and smoothed by II notch filter. 25 data sets are used to validate this method of study for fetal peak detection online from signals extracted by ICA. Two ways are used to test 25 signals firstly off line and secondly online.

The average sensitivity of the ICA (AMUSE, EVD2 and SOBI) based method are 72.3%, 66.2% and 75.1% off line respectively, and 55%, 53% and 059% online respectively, while average positive predictivity are 61.4%, 61.3% and 69.7% off line respectively, while 43%, 41% and 46% online respectively. These show that the ICA based method is more successful in detecting the FHR off line than online, which is more complicated, where the automatic selection of the output signals is not a trivial task.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vehicle Detection, Tracking and Counting Using Gaussian Mixture Model and Optical Flow

Muhammad Moin Akhtar, Yong Li, Lei Zhong, Ayesha Ansari

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v15i217141

Vehicle detection, tracking, and counting play a significant role in traffic surveillance and are principle applications of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS). Traffic congestion and accidents can be prevented with an adequate solution to problems. In this paper, we implemented different image processing techniques to detect and track the moving vehicle from the videos captured by a stationary camera and count the total number of vehicles passed by. The proposed approach consists of an optical flow method with a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to obtain an absolute shape of particular moving objects which improves the detection performance of moving targets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Implementation of a Smart & Portable Wireless FM Transmitter for Wide Range Communication

Deborsi Basu, Abhishek Bhowmik

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 28-42
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v15i217142

The evolution of smart technologies makes end users to choose portable, cost-effective and reliable devices for their daily life usage. The optimum service and superior quality of any such devices are always remain the centers of attraction for any customer. The advent of new technologies gives the smart FM transmitters also a unique shape. Depending on the dynamic requirements, the customer needs always changes with time. Keeping this fundamental issue in mind, in this work, we have designed and implemented a smart FM transmitter model keeping the key features in mind. Its small size, long battery life, and easy portability make it very useful to be used in day to day life. It has the potential of real-time noise cancellation features to get the optimum sound quality at the receiver end. The Digital Frequency Modulation Scheme has been used here to boost the signal strength for long-range communication. The used components are very cost-effective and reliable for prolonged use. The test case has given high-quality sound reception at the receiving end from the source end using our model. This smart transmitter section model has been found to be very effective for the future digital communication system. The specific station catching ability and low tone scanning capability make it superior to other existing similar kinds of devices. It can be used at home, or institutional premises, or any other distant trials for effective information exchange.

Open Access Original Research Article

Establish Measurement System for Vibration Lab Unit Using Arduino

Haithem Elderrat, Nasseradeen Ashwear, Omr Aweib, Ali Elmahrouq

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v15i217143

As science and technology develop quickly, suitable measurement system is becoming more achievable. In dynamics of structures, measuring vibrations take a serious view during the process of design and construction to avoid resonance. The main objective of this study is to establish a vibration measurement system for a laboratory vibration unit by using a virtual instrumentation system. The Arduino microcontroller is used as the receiver of the electrical signals coming from the displacement sensor, which is connected to the vibration unit. The microcontroller then processes the electrical signals and send it to LabVIEW software on the computer for processing. The established measurement system is able to calculate the vibration of the moving body. Hence, the natural frequency of the system could be determined, and shock absorber for the unit could be designed. Results have been validated using calculated theoretical results of the unit. Thus, the unit is ready to conduct laboratory experiments on the concept of mechanical vibration.