Open Access Original Research Article

Introduction of Laser Grooving Technology for Wafer Saw Defects Elimination

Antonio R. Sumagpang Jr, Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v3i416881

The technical paper showcased a comprehensive study on laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) grooving as breakthrough and ultimate solution in wafer sawing. The project is intended to address various defects such as chippings, metal dangling/peel off, cracks, and other wafer-related defects induced during wafer sawing process. Series of process simulations, actual processing, benchmarking, and collaborations with suppliers are carried out to attain a zero defect in wafer sawing. Critical processes and controls on this new technology are shown and how the mentioned defects are properly addressed.

The laser grooving is the newest and latest developed state-of-the-art technology over conventional mechanical sawing using blades. Sawing process is considered as one of the challenges in the plant as it deals with different wafer technologies. Different blade types also need to be properly maintained. Compared to the conventional and universal mechanical sawing using blades, complex errors and top reject contributor of identified critical processes are corrected and required process capability index is achieved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Floating Bridges on Velocity Distribution

Mohamed M. Ibrahim, Mohamed A. Hassan, Adnan D. Ghanim

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v3i416882

To ensure the stability of the bottom under the floating bridges according to the worst conditions, our study aims to determine the height and width and bearing the floating bridge to ensure the safety of origin with a high security factor. Our study determines the amount of damage under the floating bridge to be treated by a treatment method. We have used a practical model for a water channel and standard dimensions cut by the floating bridge connecting the two ends of the channel and when studying the erosion under the floating bridges and the possibility of maintaining the floating bridges without damage to the structure and perimeter of the bridge (bridge width, maximum load, bridge height, water depth in the channel with a factor Security This study examines the effect of floating bridges on the bottom by designing a model of a channel with a floating bridge and selecting a variable earth and sand floor. We conducted one hundred and sixty-eight experiments to examine the five variables (water depth in the channel, bridge width, loads on the bridge, soil type) Bottom, flow). We observed the effect of these five variables on topography of the bottom of the floating bridge. Experiments were conducted without a bridge and we observed erosion after laying the bridge, we noticed the erosion and sediment that occurred before and below and after the floating bridge and the effect of the bridge on it. We observed the type of positive and inverse relations between the variables mentioned. We took the loads on the bridge, the width of the bridge, the depth of the water and the drainage with a safety factor, as well as ensuring that the appearance of the channel and maintain the geometry of the channel. We put floating loads on the floating bridge to see a load. We used several models to view the floating bridge and made the water depth in the channel change more than once. We also made three different discharges. Finally, we used two types of soil and we recorded the durability and the worst conditions. The effect discharge, by (100% .64%, 45%) The velocity in the sandy soil changes (100%, 42%,38%) and the velocity in clay soil changes (100%,59%,41%) As well as change the width of the bridge by (100%, 85%,71%)velocity changes by (80%,82%,100%) for sandy soil and the ratio of clay soil to (90%,95%,100%) As well as weight change by (100% ,83%,66%)the rate of velocity in the sandy soil to (100%,78%,61%) also change the velocity in clay soils to (100%,68%,62%) as well as depth change  (100%,87%,75%)The speed in the sandy soil changes to (50%,75%,100%)  and also changes in clay soils by (71%,78%,100%) Thus, we have a knowledge of the rates of change and the effect of each variable on velocity.

Therefore, we can draw up a plan to address erosion and sedimentation in the watercourse. Moreover, identify the expected challenges of (overload, flooding, deterioration, foot and aging as well as the structural strength of the bridge gradually decreasing with the foot.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger with Double Passes

Ikenna Chukwudi Nwokedi, Chinenye Adaobi Igwegbe

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v3i416883

The exchange of heat is one of the most important processes in the chemical industry. The shell and tube heat exchanger is the major equipment used to transfer heat from one medium to another. This research work on the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) of shell and tube heat exchangers with double passes aims to provide an easy way to design the shell and tube heat exchanger. A case study question was stated and all the necessary calculations in the thermal design were carried out using the Kern’s method of heat exchanger design. The thermal design was then used as a guide to the CAD using computer codes. The computer software program, Visual Basic NET (VB.NET) was used because of its numerous advantages over the other software. The result gotten from the computer-aided design was compared to the result from the thermal design. The computer-aided design software was equally used to test other problems on shell and tube heat exchanger. The computer-aided design was found to be more accurate, quicker and efficient and, it is recommended for use in companies and industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Compressive Resistance of Groundnut Kernels as Influenced by Kernel Size

C. Uyeri, H. Uguru

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v3i416887

Mechanical properties of agricultural materials are essential for the proper design and fabrication of harvesting, handling, and processing equipment/machineries. In this research, some compressive resistance (force, energy and deformation at rupture point) of two groundnut (SAMNUT 10 and SAMNUT 11) kernels were investigated in terms of kernel sizes. During the test, the groundnut kernels were loaded quasi-statically in the axial orientation at a compressive loading rate of 20 mm/min, using the Universal Testing Machine. Results obtained from the test showed that kernel size and groundnut variety had significant (P ≤0.05) effect on all the mechanical parameters studied. The force required for initiating the kernel rupture increased from 37.21 to 76.10 N for SAMNUT 10; and 30.10 to 64.19 N for SAMNUT 11, as the kernels size increased from small to large size. In addition, the energy absorbed by the kernel at rupture point increased from 0.021 to 0.054 Nm for SAMNUT 10; and 0.016 to 0.044 Nm for SAMNUT 11, for the small and large kernel sizes respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that SAMNUT 10 kernels had slightly higher compressive resistance values than the SAMNUT 11 kernels. Data obtained from this research will help to design and fabricate equipment used in handling and processing of groundnut kernels. 

Open Access Review Article

A Review on the Current Status of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Nigeria: Problems and Solutions

H. A. Salami, J. O. Adegite, T. T. Bademosi, S. O. Lawal, O. O. Olutayo, O. Olowosokedile

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v3i416884

The management of MSW is a major concern in several cities of developing countries due to its public health and environmental sustainability implications. This paper thus presents an overview of the current solid waste management practices and problems in some selected states in Nigeria. In addition to the comprehensive review of MSW generation, its characterization, collection, and treatment options in the considered states, an attempt was made to evaluate the major waste–to–energy indicators such as calorific values and energy (electricity) recovery potential. The legislations in place at the federal level to maintain healthy environment is also lucidly presented. An estimated electricity recovery potential in the range of 48.31 to 933.69 MW with a total of about 2600MW from six states was established. Evidences from literature suggested that the existing solid waste management system is inefficient due to uncoordinated and properly planned waste management system. This paper concludes that the thermochemical conversion of waste-to-energy into electricity is a feasible option in Nigeria, although this might require the input of additional quantity of fuel to initiate combustion since the lower heating values of the considered MSW fall below the optimum stipulated by World bank.