Journal of Engineering Research and Reports <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Engineering Research and Reports</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2582-2926)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers in all areas&nbsp;of engineering.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Engineering Research and Reports) (Journal of Engineering Research and Reports) Sat, 09 Jan 2021 12:01:05 +0000 OJS 60 Optimization of Dispensing Parameter to Eliminate the Excessive Epoxy Dispense in Die Attach <p>Excessive epoxy flow on the dispensing nozzle may result in epoxy tailings due to unoptimized dispensing parameters.&nbsp; This may cause various problems related to epoxy dispensing, such as epoxy splatter, epoxy on lead, and epoxy bridging. This research study is conducted to eliminate the cause of epoxy related defects. Optimization of dispensing parameter using Design of Experiment as a methodology to reduce the excessive epoxy PPM rate. And base on the DOE main effect plot, excessive epoxy dispense PPM reduces as Snuffback time increases or faster.</p> Michael D. Capili ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 09 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cost Analysis of Green Infrastructure Compared to Conventional Stormwater Storage <p>Low Impact Development (LID), or green infrastructure, refers to a land planning and engineering design practice to address urban storm runoff. The nature of LID is to mimic the pre-development environment to retain runoff through infiltration, retention, and evaporation. Despite the fact that numerous studies have analyzed the performance of runoff volume reduction and peak flow of various green infrastructures, little is known regarding the economic benefits of adopting LID practices. In this research, three completed construction projects in the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area were selected to perform an alternative LID design including extensive green roof (GR) and permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), to determine the cost effectiveness of using LID to reduce the use of a conventional stormwater storage system. A life cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to better understand the cost benefits of applying LID to meet current drainage design criteria as per the project requirements. The results found that applying LID resulted in an average LCC saving rate of 23% compared to a conventional stormwater storage system over a 50 year service life and 15.1% over a full LID (GR+PICP) strategy.&nbsp; Furthermore, it was discovered that LID has little cost savings benefits when constructing above-ground retention basins due to cheaper associated construction costs.</p> Pengfei Zhang, Samuel T. Ariaratnam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 11 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Stabilized Silt Clay Sand with Oil Palm Fibre Bunch (OPFB) Local Fibre for Slope Foundations: A Case of Coastal Soils of Mombasa, Kenya <p>Improvement of shear strength parameters is essential for designing the OPFB fiber mix with silt clay sand for slope stability. The objective of this study was to assess the stabilized silt clay with oil palm fibre bunch (OPFB) local fibre for slope foundation. Series of laboratory tests were conducted on various materials under study and the results revealed that, OPFB mix can be used as an additive to cement for purpose of improving engineering properties of the Silt Clay sand to cut down costs without compromising the set standards. It was established that, the shear strength parameters of the soil-fibre mixture (φ and C) can be improved significantly up to an optimum and reach a certain point where it starts to decline. The shear stress–strain curves obtained from the CU triaxial tests for reinforced sands with 30 mm fibre length together with those for unreinforced silty sand were compared; the result indicated that, fibre-reinforced specimen showed higher deviator stress at 0.25% fibre and reduces at 0.5% fibre. The strain corresponding to the peak deviator stress was increased by fibre content. Patterns of stress–strain curves for all reinforcedsamples indicated improvement in the deviator stress for all compositions and fibre content. Deviator stress of fibre-reinforced soil showed a slight increase with increasing pore pressure. The increase of the fibre content caused an increase in pore water pressure due to inclination of specimens to decrease the volume. Changes in the shear strength of fibre-reinforced soil indicated that soil strength parameters (internal friction angle φ’ and cohesion C’) increase as the internal friction surface increases between fibre and soil at certain point.</p> Jared Kambaga Makone, Ezra Wekesa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 11 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Improvement of Fiber Fines Retention and Mechanical Properties of Board Paper Using Corn and Tapioca Starch- A Handsheet Study <p>Steadily increasing production cost in the paper industry require more efficient resource allocation and utilization of recycled materials and the use of renewable materials and additives to become more environmentally friendly. With this project, 100 g/m² TAPPI handsheets from industrial processed OCC fiber material were produced, without starch and starch in cooked and uncooked form, air-dried at 23°C and contact-dried at 120°C. Starch addition levels were 6.0, 18.0 and 24.0 kg/mt (12.0, 36.0, and 48.0 lbs./st) for pearl and cationic starch, and 2.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kg/mt (4.0, 12.0, and 16.0 lbs./st) for tapioca starch. Fines were measured with a Britt Jar devise having a 75 μm (200 mesh) screen. The highest tensile index improvement of 35.71% for uncooked tapioca starch at an addition rate of 16 lbs./st. The highest tear index improvement of 1.86% was for pearl starch at an addition rate of 12 lbs./st for the cooked &amp; contact dried application. The highest burst index improvement of the produced handsheets was for uncooked &amp; contact dried cationic starch at an addition rate of 12 lbs./st with an improvement of 21.49%. Application of pearl starch showed the largest difference in fines content at the 12 lbs./st and 48 lbs./st of fiber concentrations, reducing the fines content by 22.2% and 24.7% based on solids content respectively. Pearl starch outperformed cationic and tapioca starch products and showed the highest potential for fiber savings and net profit value.</p> Klaus Doelle, Jonas Sonntag, Kai Fischer, Tyler Dominesey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Proxy Models for Screening Water Flood and Gas Flood Candidates <p>Fluid-flood and other improved oil recovery techniques are becoming prominent in global petroleum production because a large proportion of production is from mature oil fields. Although water flooding and gas injection are well established techniques in the industry, several of the screening criteria in literature are discipline which could sometimes be subjective. This work used experimental design techniques to develop proxy models for predicting oil recovery under water-flood and gas-flood conditions.</p> <p>The objective of the study is to develop a quantitative screening method that would allow for candidates to be evaluated and ranked for water flood or gas injection. The model was applied to some field cases and compared with published models and the well-known Welge Analysis method. The coefficient constants for the oil formation volume factor for water flooding and gas injection was 0.0139 and 0.0434 respectively. Similarly, the coefficient constants for water injection and gas injection for the generated proxy model was -2.34* 10<sup>-8</sup> and -6.1 *10<sup>-5 </sup>respectively. The results show that the proxy models developed are quite robust and can be used for first pass screening of water and gas flood candidates.&nbsp;</p> Moyosore, Olanipekun, Akpabio, Julius U., Isehunwa, Sunday O. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Solid Waste Generation and Management in Eziobodo Community, Imo State, Nigeria <p>Solid wastes management is a major problem that has reached alarming proportions requiring drastic measures. The increasing difficulty in managing wastes in Nigeria has become one of the most intractable environmental issues. There is unprecedented increase in the rate of wastes generated by the residents. The cardinal aim of the study is to “ascertain the assessment of solid waste management generated in Eziobodo community, Owerri west, Imo state, Nigeria”. To achieve this aim, 140 copies of questionnaires were administered to the residents of Eziobodo community selected at random sampling. Of these, 112 copies of the questionnaire (80.0%) were returned and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed by simple frequency and presented by percentage. The study revealed among others that: residential buildings accounts for the highest generation source of solid wastes in the community and the solid wastes were predominantly nylon/nylon bags/ nylon sachets; food waste, plastic can/rubbers&nbsp; arranged in their order of severity. Consequently, the effect of the solid waste in the community were; wide and easy spread of disease vectors, soil pollution and easy breed of flies, rats and mosquitoes. Hence the study recommends, sorting of solid waste before dumping, provision of adequate skips and dustbins and ensuring regular collection of wastes. Finally, potential for a sustainable approach to management of solid wastes such as recycling, reuse, energy recovery and waste reduction.</p> Nkeleme Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu, Nwabueze Micheal Anosike, Achigbu Onyemaeze Ikenna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Robotization of Tomato Fruits Production to Enhance Food Security <p>The world is facing food insecurity problem due to shortage of workforce and growing world population. Robotization of crop production will help to boost food production, through effective labour conservation. This study was carried out to optimize the performance of tomato fruits’ robotic harvesters, through field practices (pre-harvest treatments). Tomato (Cv. UC82B) was cultivated under four major field practices, which were: control, organic treatment, inorganic treatment using potassium nitrate (KNO<sub>3</sub>), and combine treatment using the combination of compost manure and KNO<sub>3</sub>. Tomato fruits were harvested at the pink maturity stage and were subjected to compression test, using the Universal Testing Machine, at three compression speeds of 15 mm/min, 20 mm/min and 25 mm/min. Results obtained from the study showed that, field practices and compression speed significantly (p ≤0.05) affected the failure parameters (failure force, failure energy and deformation) of the tomato fruits. Regardless of the compression speed, the fruits produced with combined treatment had the highest failure parameters; while the control fruits developed the least failure parameters.&nbsp; Tomato fruit produced using the combined treatment developed failure force, failure energy and deformation of 87.60 N, 701.97 and 16.88 mm respectively. In the terms of the compression speed, the study revealed that the ability of the fruits to absolved compression force declined significantly, as the compression speed increased from 15 mm/min to 25 mm/min, across the four treatments regimes. These results will be useful during the programming and application of automatic tomato fruits harvesting robots, to optimize their efficiency, hence improving food security condition.</p> O. Idama, H. Uguru ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000