Main Article Content
Water is life. Unfortunately, there has become a great scarcity of this precious liquid due to anthropogenic/human activities which have generated wastes, especially sewage that has not been adequately treated in the country, more especially in the poverty-stricken Niger Delta area of Nigeria. The few freshwater bodies not only serve a means for domestic use, including drinking, but it is also used as a means of direct sewage disposal both by the locals and other related unabated activities, thereby increasing the prevalence of water-borne diseases.
A locally designed sewage plant “engineered sewage treatment system” (ESTS) was therefore designed and developed with local materials like palm kernel shell (PKS), periwinkle shell (PWS), charcoal, fine, and coarse sand to treat domestic wastewater and improve the quality of the available water source within the local communities. The ESTS was operated for three months, and weekly monitoring carried out. The analysis of the treated effluents showed a significant reduction in the levels of contaminants as most of the physicochemical and biological parameters were within acceptable limits by the World Health Organization/Federal Ministry of Environment (WHO/FMEnv). The quality of treated sewage water improved when subjected to treatment by ESTS and compared well to the borehole water, which served as control. The results of the treatment process showed a 93% to 100% treatment efficiency of ESTS in the removal of F. coliform, E. coli, Streptococcus and Clostridium from the sewage. This high-efficiency rate has provided a holistic and affordable (cost-effective) means to curb the proliferation of water- borne diseases and help improve water quality in riverine communities.
Ward H. Septic systems are polluting our drinking water: A special article to Gainesville Sun; 2019.
WHO guidelines for technologies for water supply systems to small communities, WHO CEHA; 1993.
Moore E. Ph.D. thesis, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 2019.
Amany S, Azza E, Amany AA, Marwa AE, Reham KN, Asmaa RA, Mohamed SN, Amira M. Usefulness of sunlight and artificial UV radiation versus chlorine for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts: An in vivo Animal Study: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Med Sci. 2018;6(6):975–981.
Ahmad R, Hamidin N, Ali UFM, Abidin CZA. Characterization of bio-oil from palm kernel shell pyrolysis. Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences. 2014;7:1134–1140.
Ikumapa MO, Akinlab TE. Composition, characteristics, and socioeconomic benefits of palm kernel shell exploitation - An overview. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2018;11(5):220–232.
Okpala DC. Palm kernel shell as a lightweight aggregate in concrete. Building Environment Journal. 1990;25(4):291–6.
Albert-Oguara B. Feasibility study for the establishment of an oil palm plantation mill in Ahoada West Local Government Area Rivers State; 2016.
Adewuyi AP, Adegoke T. Exploratory study of periwinkle shells as coarse aggregates in concrete works: ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2008; 3(6).
Sonawane JM, Marsili E, Chandra Ghosh P. Treatment of domestic and distillery wastewater in high surface microbial fuel cells. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy; 2014.
Zhou A, Tao T, Bian Z, Zhang Y. Effect of charcoal media for the treatment of wastewater in a biological filter. 2008 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering. 2008;3527–3530.
Rono AK. Evaluation of TSS, BOD5, and TP in Sewage Effluent Receiving Sambul River. J Pollution Effects & Control. 2017; 5:189.
DOI: 10.4176/2375- 4397.1000189
Carey RO, Migliaccio KW. Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: A review. Environ Manage. 2009;44: 205-217.