Characterization of Chemically Modified Cashew Nut Shell Liquid

Main Article Content

H. N. Dike
A. Dosunmu
B. Kinigoma
O. Akaranta


The need to convert waste-to-wealth motivated this research. Huge amount of by-products generated in the processing stage of cashew nut is treated as waste and dumped in the environment. The waste contains a dark liquid rich in natural and renewable phenolic material known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Owing to the phenolic composition and structural features of CNSL, different types of naturally occurring as well as modified natural cellulose based polymers have been synthesized and used to substitute synthetic and petroleum based polymers for various applications. In this study, naturally occurring liquid from cashew nut shell was extracted, modified and characterized as additive for drilling fluid formulations. The study adopted solvent extraction technique using soxhlet apparatus, acetone and cashew nut shell. The liquid extract was further modified using amines respectively. In the condensation reaction, 100 mls of the cashew nut shell was used to react with 7.3 ml ethanol-amines, 27.58 ml diethanol-amine (DEA) and 38.2 ml triethanol-amine (TEA) respectively. The mixtures were sulphonated with sulphamic acid as catalyst at a temperature ranging from 100ºC to 140ºC. The reaction mixtures were stirred continually for an hour (1hr.) and water of esterification was collected as by-product of the reaction which was an indication of complete reaction. Biodegradable, cheap and renewable esters were obtained. To elucidate on the chemical structure, the esters were subjected to elemental analysis using the FTIR instrument. The results of the FTIR analysis revealed that N-H and C-H stretching vibrations which were absent in CNSL, were present in the modified compounds, attesting that in deed new compounds have been formed. The physico-chemical properties of the extract was analysand the result showed an agreement with existing literature. These products, in combination with the right additives, and conditions could be potential multi-purpose additives in drilling operation. This will help to reduce the cost of importing synthetic oilfield additives, creating job opportunities and boosting the local content goal.

Agro-waste, CNSL extract, synthesis, characterization, oilfield-chemical additives, drilling operation.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dike, H. N., Dosunmu, A., Kinigoma, B., & Akaranta, O. (2019). Characterization of Chemically Modified Cashew Nut Shell Liquid. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 8(4), 1-8.
Original Research Article


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