Main Article Content
Irrigation is of major importance in many countries. It is important in terms of agricultural production and food supply, the incomes of rural people, public investment for rural development, and often recurrent public expenditures for the agricultural sector. Nigeria’s irrigation system is confronted with many challenges which included a widening gap between demand for food and domestic supply as a result of population growth and changing patterns of consumption. The evaluation study was carried out at the Itoikin Irrigation Scheme using performance indices. The site is one of the irrigation projects under the Ogun-Osun River Basin Development Authority (O-ORBDA) located in the Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State. The potency and vulnerability of Itoikin Irrigation Scheme were evaluated. The physico-chemical properties of soil, soil and water inventory were used to carryout the evaluation. Soil samples were collected at different depth and taken to the laboratory for measurement and Analysis. Soil and water inventory, Crop water requirement and evapotranspiration, Irrigation scheduling for maize and rice at the scheme and Analysis of moisture content were assessed. The range of electrical conductivity (EC) is measured and the values range from 102.8 ms cm-1 to 308 ms cm-1. The lowest electrical conductivity is 102.8 ms cm-1 at F4, depth 30-45 cm while the highest is 308 ms cm-1 at F3, depth 15-30 cm. The hydraulic conductivity (k) ranges from 3.75 × 10-4 to 8.99 × 10-4 cm s-1. The lowest of the hydraulic conductivity was in F3 at depth of 25-50 cm in silt clay loam, while the highest was in F2 at depth of 25-50, in silt clay. The (EC) is too high and needs to be reduced. Root development will not pose as a problem as the bulk density will not restrict the development of the root, while the soil pH will allow the cultivation of maize, rice and vegetables. The minimum temperature ranged between 21.8ºC and 24.1ºC while the maximum temperature ranged from 28.2ºC to 33.2ºC. The average minimum and maximum temperatures are 22.8ºC and 30.8ºC respectively. The highest humidity was recorded on June (100%). The wind speed ranged between 156 km day and 207 km day and the values does not pose any adverse effect on the productivity of the crops. The evapotranspiration (ET) ranged between 2.5 mm day-1 and 4.22 mm day-1 with an average of 3.44 mm day-1. High values of evapotranspiration (ET) recorded in the months of February, March and April indicates that more water is loss during this period. The (ETcrop) and crop water requirement for maize at the scheme varied from 1.36 to 6.35 mm day-1 and 5.1 to 63.5 mm dec-1 respectively. The total amount of water consumed by the crop is 398.2 mm dec-1, while the effective rainfall was 212.2 mm dec-1 during the farming season. The total evapotranspiration is 494 mm dec-1. The crop evapotranspiration (ETcrop) and crop water requirement for rice at the scheme varied from 0.35 to 4.30 mm day-1 and 1.0 to 47.1 mm dec-1 respectively. The total amount of water consumed by the crop is 494.3 mm dec-1, while the effective rainfall was 250.3 mm dec-1 during the farming season. The total evapotranspiration is 491.9 mm dec-1. The soil moisture contents were investigated to the depth of 45 cm. The minimum and maximum values are 20.6 mm and 34.66 mm on plot 6 were recorded. Down the profile, there is an increasing trend which posed the water at the scheme to be lost by deep percolation than runoff and evaporations.
Arora KR. Irrigation, water power and water resources engineering. 4th ed. New Delhi: Standard Publisher Distributors; 2009.
National Irrigation Policy and Strategy for Nigeria; 2004.
Sener M, Yuksel AN, Konukeu F. Evaluation of Hayrabolu irrigation scheme in Turkey using comparative Performance Indicators. Journal of Tekirday Agricultural Faculty. 2007;4(1):43-44.
Yusuf KH. Assessment of small scale irrigation using comparative performance indicators on two selected scemes in Upper Awash River Valley. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Alemaya University, Ethopia; 2004.
Food and Agricultural Organisation. Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirement FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper. 1998;56.
Bititci US, Carrie AS, Devitt MC. Integrated performance measurement system: A development guide. International Journal of Operations and Production Management. 1997;17(5):522-534.
Cakmak B, Beyribey M, Yildirim YE, Kodal S. Benchmarking performance of irrigation schemes. A case study from Turkey Irrigation and Drainage. 2004;53:155-163.
Behcet JO, Tarkan SA. Performance evaluation for irrigation management. A case study the Karacebey Irrigation Scheme in Turkey. International Journal of Irrigation Management and Drainage Engineering. 2014;20(14):1-9.
Moullin M. Performance measurement definitions. Linking performance measurement and organizational excellence. International Journal Health Care Quality Assurance. 2007;20(3): 181-183.
Molden DJ, Gates TK. Performance measures for evaluation of irrigation-water-delivery systems. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE. 1990;116(6):804-812.
Sakthivadivel R, Merrey DJ, Fernando N. Cumulative relative water supply: A methodology for assessing Irrigation systems performance. Irrigation and Drainage Systems. 1993;7:43-67.
Bos MG, Murray-Rust DH, Merrey DJ, Johnson HG, Snellen WS. Methodologies for Assessing Performance of Irrigation and Drainage Management. Irrigation and Drainage Systems. 1994;7:231-261.
Merdun H. Comparison of irrigation performance based on the basin, crop pattern and scheme sizes using external indicators. Turk J of Agric. 2004;28:321-331.
Yercan M, Dorsan F, Ul MA. Comparative analysis of performance criteria in irrigation schemes: A case study of Gediz river basin in Turkey. Agric. Water Mgt. 2004;66:259-266.
Jayatillake HM. Application of Performance assessment and benchmarking tool to help improve irrigation system performance in Sri Lanka. Irrigation and Drainage. 2004;53:185-193.
Diaz JAR, Poyato EC, Luque RL. Applying Benchmarking and data envelopment analysis (DEA) techniques to Irrigation Districts in Spain. Irrigation and Drainage. 2004;53:135-143.
Degirmenci H, Büyükcangaz H, Merdun H. Assessment of Irrigation Schemes in Turkey with Irrigation Ratio and Relative Water Supply. Water International. 2006;31(2):259-265.
Yıldırım M, Cakmak B, Gokalp Z. Benchmarking and Assessment of Irrigation Management Transfer Effects on Irrigation Performance in Turkey. J. Biol. Sci. 2007;7(6):911-917.
Kuscu H, Demir AO, Korukcu A. An assessment of the irrigation management transfer programme: Case study in the Mustafakemalpa a irrigation scheme in Turkey. Irrigation and Drainage. 2008;57: 15-22.
Adesigbin AJ, Fasinmirin JT. Soil physical properties and hydraulic conductivity of compacted sandy clay loam planted with Maize Zea mays. Proceedings of the Environmental Management Conference, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. 2011;290-301.
Hunt N, Gilkes R. Farm monitoring handbook. The University of Western Australia: Nedlands, WA; 1992.
Mckenzie NJ, Jacquier DJ, Isbell RF, Brown KL. Australian soils and landscapes. An Illustrated Compendium. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood, Victoria; 2004.
Cresswell HP, Hamilton PA. Particle size analysis. In: Soil physical measurement and interpretation for land evaluation. (Eds. NJ Mckenzie, HP Cresswell, KJ Coughlan) CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood, Victoria. 2002;224-239.
Ed Hume Seeds Handbook; 2012.
Ezeaku PI. Evaluation of agro-ecological approach to soil quality assessment for sustainable land use and management systems. Academic Journals. 2015;10(15): 501-512.
Bear J. Dynamics of fluids in porous media. New York: America Elsevier Publishing Company. 1972;1:764.
Hutjes RW, Kabat AP, Running SW, Shuttleworth WJ, Field CB, Bass MB. Biospheric aspects of the hydrological cycle. J. Hydrol. 1-21 found in water cycle above vegetation: An Overview of Baltex Related Studies. 1998;212-213,
Arora KV. The use of the aridity index to Assess climate change effect on annual runoff. Canadian centre for climate modelling and analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada, University of Victoria. Journal of Hydrology. 2002;4(2): 20-21.
Gerten D, Schaphoff S, Haberlandt U, Lucht W, Sitch S. Terrestrial vegetation and water balance hydrological performance indicators. Journal of Tekirday Agricultural Faculty. 2007;4(1): 43-44.
Clark PU, Shawn JM, Garry KC, Clarke SW, Hostetier JM, Licciardi JT, Teller MK. Freshwater Forcing of Abrupt Climate Change During the Last Glaciation. 2001;293(5528):283-287.
Stephenson NL. Climatic control of vegetation distribution: The role of the water balance. Am. Nat. 1990;135:649-670.
Baille M, Baille A, Laury JC. A simplified model for predicting evapotranspiration rate of nine ornamental species versus climate factors and leaf area. Scientia Horticulture. 1994;59(3):217-232.
Mulat D, Fantu G, Tadele F. Agricultural development in Ethiopia: Are there alternatives to food aid? Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2004.
Udoh EJ, Akintola JO. Land management and resource-use efficiency among farmers in South eastern Nigeia. El-shaddai Global ventures Ltd, Ibadan. 2002;ix(2):5-8.
Udoh EJ. Land management and resource use efficiency among farmers in South-Eastern Nigeria Unpublished Ph.D Thesis University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2000.
Ali GA. Assessment of small scale irrigation system of some selected farms in Ogun-Osun river basin. Unpublished M.Sc thesis, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 2013.
Behailu M, Abdulkadir M, Mezgebu A, Yasin M. Performance evaluation of community based irrigation management in the Tekeze Basin. A case study on three small-scale irrigation schemes (Micro Dams). A Collaborative Project between Mekelle University, ILRI and EARO; 2006.