A Review: Date Palm Irrigation Methods and Water Resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Main Article Content

Ahmed Elfeky
Jamal Elfaki

Abstract

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), from Saudi Arabia, is a main tree particularly at arid areas. It plays an essential role in both food and food security. 75% of date production worldwide (approx. 5,096.99 tones) were come from Arab countries. Reduction of water opposite the increasing in the population are one of the future challenges for the country so, we focused in this study depending on the literatures to predict the novel approaches that can we used.

Keywords:
Date palm, irrigation system, irrigation resources, food security, Saudi Arabia

Article Details

How to Cite
Elfeky, A., & Elfaki, J. (2019). A Review: Date Palm Irrigation Methods and Water Resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 9(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i217012
Section
Review Article

References

Coelho EF, Or D. Root distribution and water uptake patterns of corn under surface and subsurface drip irrigation. Plant and Soil. 1999;206(2):123-136.

Chao CT, Krueger RR. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Overview of biology, uses, and cultivation. HortScience. 2007;42(5):1077-1082.

Ayers R, Westcot D. Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29 Rev. 1. Food and Agricultural Organization. Rome; 1985.

Yaacoob A. Irrigation of date palm trees. Translated from German Language, Basel AI-Assad Scientific Journal for Agricultural Engineering Sciences. 1996;1(1):85-88. (In Arabic)

Al-Amoud A. Subsurface drip irrigation for date palm trees to conserve water. IV International Date Palm Conference 882; 2010.

FAO. “Irrigated date palm production in the Near East, Chapter 1. In Proceedings of Workshop on Irrigation of Date Palm and Associated Crops" Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Cairo, Egypt. 2008;1–15.

Hussain NHM. Date Palm Global Development Plan; 2010.

El-Juhany LI. Degradation of date palm trees and date production in Arab countries: Causes and potential rehabilitation. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2010;4(8):3998-4010.

Faostat F. 2012.
Available:http://faostat. fao.org
(Acesso em 14)

Barth H. Resource conservation and preservation through a new subsurface irrigation system. Microirrigation for changing world: Conserving resources/Preserving the environment. Proceed Fifth Intern Microirrigation Cong. Orlando, Florida. 1995;168-174.

Purseglove JW. Tropical crops. Monocotyledons. Vol. 1, 2. Tropical Crops. Monocotyledons. 1972;1,2.

Mintzer IM. Confronting climate change: Risks, implications and responses. Cambridge University Press. 1992;8. ISBN: 0521421098

Sawaya WN. Regional Network for Date-Palm in the Near East And North Africa; 2000

Furr J, Armstrong W. Flower induction in Marsh grapefruit in the Coachella Valley, California. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1956;67:176-182.

Hilgeman RH, Reuther W. Evergreen tree fruits. Irrigation of Agricultural Lands (Irrigationofagr). 1967;704-718.

Hussein F, Hussein M. Effect of irrigation on growth, yield and quality of dry date palm fruits grown in Aswan Area. Saudi Symposium on Date Palm Trees, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia; 1982. (In Arabic)

Helal M, Salem M. Irrigation scheduling and nitrogen fertilization for date palm trees. Second Saudi Symposium on Date Palm Trees, Date Palm Research Center, King Faisal University, Al-Hasa, 3-6 March, Saudi Arabia; 1986. (In Arabic)

Hussein F. Studies on crop water requirement for date palm trees under various environmental conditions. Second Saudi Symposium on Date Palm Trees, Date Palm Research Center, King Faisal University, Al-Hasa., 3-6 March, Saudi Arabia; 1986. (In Arabic)

Furr J, Armstrong W. Water and salinity problems of Abadan Island date gardens. Ann. Date Growers Inst. 1975;52:14-17.

Al-Buzaidi AA. Palm tree water requirement. Training course in the cultivation and protection of date palms and dates in Tunisia, April 10-May 4, Regional Project for Palm and Dates Research Center in the Near East and North Africa, Baghdad; 1982.

Al-Amoud AI, Bacha MA, Al-Darby AM. Seasonal water use of date palms in the central region of Saudi Arabia. International Agricultural Engineering Journal. 2000;9(2):51-62.‏

Al-Ghobari HM. Estimation of reference evapotranspiration for southern region of Saudi Arabia. Irrigation Science. 2000;19(2):81-86.

Alazba A. Estimating palm water requirements using Penman-Monteith mathematical model. Journal of King Saud University. 2004;16(2):137-152.

Abdul Baki A, Aslan SN. Management of soil and water in date palm orchards of Coachella Valley, California. International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas; 2005.

Kassem M. Water requirements and crop coefficient of date palm trees Sukariah CV. Misr J. Ag. Eng. 2007;24(2):339-359.

Mazahrih NT, Al-Zubi Y, Ghnaim H, Lababdeh L, Ghananeem M, Ahmadeh HA. Determination actual evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in the Jordan Valley;‏ 2012.

Alamoud AI, Mohammad FS, Al-Hamed SA, Alabdulkader AM. Reference evapotranspiration and date palm water use in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science. 2012;2(4):155-169.

Viala E. Water for food, water for life a comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage Systems. 2008;22(1):127-129.

Carr M. The water relations and irrigation requirements of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): A review. Experimental Agriculture. 2013;49(01):91-113.

Rawlins SL. Uniform irrigation with a low-head bubbler system. Agricultural Water Management. 1977;1(2):167-178.

Soothar RK, Chandio AS, Mirjat MS, Mangrio MA, Mirjat MU, Talpur MA. Comparison of bubbler and basin irrigation methods in a bivarietal Mangifera indica orchard in Pakistan. Science International. 2015;27(2).‏

Phocaides A. Technical handbook on pressurized irrigation techniques. FAO, Rome. 2000;145-149.

Al-Amoud AI. Performance of bubbler irrigation system as compared to trickle for large size date palm tree farm. The Canadian Society for Bioengineering. 2008;08-172.

Amiri ME, Panahi M, Aghazadeh G. Comparison of bubbler, sprinkler and basin irrigation for date palms (Phoenix dactylifera, cv. Zahdi) growth in Kish Island, Iran. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment; 2007.

Ibrahim YM, Saeed AB, Elamin AWM. Effect of irrigation water management on growth of date palm offshoots (Phoenix dactylifera) under the River Nile state conditions. University of Khartoum Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;20(3).‏

Bhardwaj SK, Sharma JP, Bhandari AR, Sharma JC, Tripathi D. Soil water distribution and growth of apple plants under drip irrigation. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 1995;43(3):323-327.

Reuveni O. Trickle irrigation of date palms. Annual Date Growers Institute Report. 1971;48:16-19.

Nimah M. Localized versus trickle irrigation system. Proceedings of the 3rd Trickle Irrigation Congress, Fresno, California, USA. 1985;552-554.

Sivanappan RK. Low cost micro irrigation system for all crops and all farmers. In: Proceedings of Workshop Micro Irrigation and Sprinkler Irrigation Systems April 1998 at New Delhi. Organized by Central Board of Irrigation and Power, Edited by CVJ Verma. 1998;IV-15-IV-20.

Hamdy A, Ragab R, Scarascia‐Mugnozza E. Coping with water scarcity: Water saving and increasing water productivity. Irrigation and Drainage: The Journal of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage. 2003;52(1):3-20.

Thompson TL, Pang HC, LI YY. The potential contribution of subsurface drip irrigation to water-saving agriculture in the western USA. Agricultural Sciences in China. 2009;8(7):850-854.‏

Kalfountzos D, Alexiou I, Kotsopoulos S, Zavakos G, Vyrlas P. Effect of subsurface drip irrigation on cotton plantations. Water Resources Management. 2007;21(8):1341-1351.

Rodríguez-Sinobas L, Gil-Rodríguez M. A review of subsurface drip irrigation and its management. In: Water Quality, Soil and Managing Irrigation of Crops, T. S. Hui Lee (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0426-1, InTech. 2012;171-194.

Patel N, Rajput T. Effect of subsurface drip irrigation on onion yield. Irrigation Science. 2009;27(2):97-108.

Phene CJ. The sustainability and potential of subsurface drip irrigation. Proceedings of the Fifth International Micro Irrigation Congress, Orlando, Florida. ASAE. 1995;359-367.

Elmaloglou S, Diamantopoulos E, Dercas N. Comparing soil moisture under trickle irrigation modeled as a point and line source. Agricultural Water Management. 2010;97(3):426-432.‏

Mohammad F, Al-Amoud A. Response of tomato crops to sub-irrigation with porous tubes in greenhouses. Al-Azhar Journal of Agricultural Research (Egypt). 1994;19:153-167.

Solomon K. Subsurface drip irrigation: Product selection and performance. Subsurface Drip Irrigation: Theory, Practices and Application, Jorgensen, GS and Norum KN (eds), CATI Publication (921001); 1993.

Lamm FR, Trooien TP. Subsurface drip irrigation for corn production: A review of 10 years of research in Kansas. Irrigation Science. 2003;22(3-4):195-200.

Cardenas-Lailhacar B, Dukes MD. Precision of soil moisture sensor irrigation controllers under field conditions. Agricultural Water Management. 2010;97(5):666-672.

Ahmed TF, Hashmi HN, Ghumman AR, Sheikh AA. Performance assessment of surface and subsurface drip irrigation system for date palm fruit trees. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(10):1542-1549.‏

Vories ED, Tacker PL, Lancaster SW, Glover RE. Subsurface drip irrigation of corn in the United States Mid-South. Agricultural Water Management. 2009;96(6):912-916.‏

Al-Amoud AI. Date palm response to subsurface drip irrigation. ASAE Annual Meeting, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers; 2006.

Oron G. Pear response to saline water application under subsurface drip irrigation. In Proceedings Fifth International Microirrgation Congress, Orlando, FL, April 2-6;‏ 1995.

Najafi P, Tabatabaei S. Effect of using subsurface drip irrigation and ET-HS model to increase WUE in irrigation of some crops. Irrigation and Drainage. 2007;56(4):477-486.

Ayars JE, Phene CJ, Hutmacher RB, Davis KR, Schoneman RA, Vail SS, Mead RM. Subsurface drip irrigation of row crops: A review of 15 years of research at the Water Management Research Laboratory. Agricultural Water Management. 1999;42(1):1-27.

Wang Z, Liu Z, Zhang Z, Liu X. Subsurface drip irrigation scheduling for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in solar greenhouse based on 20 cm standard pan evaporation in Northeast China. Scientia Horticulturae. 2009;123(1):51-57.‏

Shahin S, Salem M. Review future concerns on irrigation requirements of date palm tree in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): Call for quick actions. The 5th International Date Palm Conference; 2014.

Parry ML, AS, MS. Confronting climatic change: Risks, implications, and responses. Effect of Climatic Change on Food Production; 1993.

FAO. Irrigation in the near east region in figures. Water Reports. Rome, Italy. Water Reports 9; 1997.

UNCCD. Executive Summary the Third National Report for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia about the Implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Switzerland; 2000.

Frenken K. Irrigation in the Middle East region in figures AQUASTAT Survey-2008. Water Reports(34). 2009;34:xvi+402.

Abderrahman WABPB. Water demand management in Saudi Arabia. International Development Research Centre, Canada; 2009.
Available:http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-93954-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html

Dabbagh AE, Abderrahman WA. Management of groundwater resources under various irrigation water use scenarios in Saudi Arabia. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 1997;22(1):47-64.

Howell TA. Enhancing water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. Agronomy Journal. 2001;93(2):281-289.

Barreveld WH. Introduction. In Date Palm Products, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 101. Rome, Italy: FAO; 1993.
Available:http://go.worldbank.org/JQVM8LMP70

FAO. Irrigation in the Middle East Region in Figures. K. Frenken. Rome, AQUASTAT Survey 2008, Country Report Saudi Arabia. 2009;325-337.