Characterization of Chemically Modified Cashew Nut Shell Liquid

Main Article Content

H. N. Dike
A. Dosunmu
B. Kinigoma
O. Akaranta

Abstract

The need to convert waste-to-wealth motivated this research. Huge amount of by-products generated in the processing stage of cashew nut is treated as waste and dumped in the environment. The waste contains a dark liquid rich in natural and renewable phenolic material known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Owing to the phenolic composition and structural features of CNSL, different types of naturally occurring as well as modified natural cellulose based polymers have been synthesized and used to substitute synthetic and petroleum based polymers for various applications. In this study, naturally occurring liquid from cashew nut shell was extracted, modified and characterized as additive for drilling fluid formulations. The study adopted solvent extraction technique using soxhlet apparatus, acetone and cashew nut shell. The liquid extract was further modified using amines respectively. In the condensation reaction, 100 mls of the cashew nut shell was used to react with 7.3 ml ethanol-amines, 27.58 ml diethanol-amine (DEA) and 38.2 ml triethanol-amine (TEA) respectively. The mixtures were sulphonated with sulphamic acid as catalyst at a temperature ranging from 100ºC to 140ºC. The reaction mixtures were stirred continually for an hour (1hr.) and water of esterification was collected as by-product of the reaction which was an indication of complete reaction. Biodegradable, cheap and renewable esters were obtained. To elucidate on the chemical structure, the esters were subjected to elemental analysis using the FTIR instrument. The results of the FTIR analysis revealed that N-H and C-H stretching vibrations which were absent in CNSL, were present in the modified compounds, attesting that in deed new compounds have been formed. The physico-chemical properties of the extract was analysand the result showed an agreement with existing literature. These products, in combination with the right additives, and conditions could be potential multi-purpose additives in drilling operation. This will help to reduce the cost of importing synthetic oilfield additives, creating job opportunities and boosting the local content goal.

Keywords:
Agro-waste, CNSL extract, synthesis, characterization, oilfield-chemical additives, drilling operation.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dike, H. N., Dosunmu, A., Kinigoma, B., & Akaranta, O. (2019). Characterization of Chemically Modified Cashew Nut Shell Liquid. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 8(4), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i417004
Section
Original Research Article

References

Agwu OE, Akpabio JU. Using agro-waste materials as possible filter loss control agents in drilling muds: A review. J Pet Sci. Eng. 2018;163:185–198.

Akaranta O. Production of particle boards from bio-resources. Bio-resource Technology. 2000;75:87-89.

Anaele JV, Joel OF, Chukwuma OF, Otaraku JI. Alternative utilization of sawdust for oilfield chemical additive (cement retarder) production: A case study of local cement. International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations. 2019;8(85):2251-8843.

Nwanekezie MN, Ogbeide. Formulation of oil-based drilling fluids (muds) from plant seed oil (gmelina arborea seed oil). Chemical and Process Engineering Research. 2017;50.

Jekayinfa SO, Omisakin OS. The energy potentials of some agricultural wastes as local fuel materials in Nigeria. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR E-Journal of Scientific Research and Development; 2005.

Rajapakse RA, Gunatillake PA, Wijekoon KB. A preliminary study on processing of cashew nuts and production of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on a commercial scale in Sri Lanka. J. Ntn. Sci. Coun. Sri Lanka. 1997;5(2):117-124.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s1336 9-017-2583-2

FAO. Cashew production in Africa, 1961-2000. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Production Database; 2000.
Available: http://apps.fao.org/

Eke W, Ozioma A, Ofordie SE, Ajienka JA, Akaranta O. Performance evaluation of cashew nut shell liquid as flow improver for waxy crude oil. SPE Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition 5-7 August, Lagos, Nigeria; 2019.

Tyman JH. Synthetic and natural Phenols Elsevier. 1996;52.

Patel RN, Bandyopadhyay S, Ganesh A. Economic appraisal of supercritical fluid extraction of refined cashew nut shell liquid. Journal of Chromatography A. 2006; 1124(1-2):130-138.

Patela RN, Bandyopadhyayb S, Ganesh A. Selective extraction of cardansol and phenols from cashew nut shell liquid obtained through pyrolysis of cashew nut shells. In Proceedings of the Indian Chemical Engineering Congress, Novel Separation Processes Session (CHEMCON). 2005;14-17.

Taiwo EA. Cashew Nut Shell Oil—A Renewable and Reliable Petrochemical Feedstock. In Advances in Petrochemicals. In. Tech; 2015.

Menon AR, Pillai RCKS, Sudha JD, Mathew AG. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 1985;44:324.

Gedam PH, Sampathkumaran PS. Prog. Org. Coat. 1986;14:115.

Tyman JHP, Wielezynski D, Kashani MA. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1978;55:663.

Anonymous. Cashew Nut Shell Liquid; 2009.
Available:http://www.anacardium.info/IMG/cashew_nut_ shell_iquid.pdf

Fadairo Adesina, Ameloko Anthony, Adeyemi Gbadegesin, Ogidigbo Esseoghene, Airende Oyakhire. Environmental impact evaluation of a safe drilling mud. SPE Middle East Health, Safety, Security, and Environment Conference and Exhibition held in Abu Dhabi, UAE. 2012;SPE-152865.

Yuliana M, Tran-thi NY, Ju Y. Effect of extraction methods on characteristic and composition of Indonesian cashew nut shell liquid. Industrial Crops & Products. 2012;35(1):230–236.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.07.007

Fakharany, T E., Ahamed, A. G., Hadir, S. “Formulating Environmentally Friendly Oil Based Mud using Soybeans Oil” International Advanced Research journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017; 4(7).

Dholakiya BK, Gandhi T, Patel M. Studies on effect of various solvents on extraction of cashew nut shell liquid and isolation of major phenolic constituents from extracted CNSL; J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour. 2012; 2(1):135-142 .

Bhunia HP, Nando GB, Basak A, Lenka S, Nayak PL. Synthesis and characterization of polymers from cashewnut shell liquid (CNSL), a renewable resource III. Synthesis of a polyether. European Polymer Journal. 1999;35(9):1713-1722.

Ikodiya O. Millicent UI, Akaranta O. Evaluation of C10 Esters as Synthetic Base Fluids for Drilling Mud Formulation. Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2016;9:31-38.