Estimation of Watershed Sustainability Index of University of Uyo Watershed Using UNESCO-IHP Help Tool

Main Article Content

I. I. Ahuchaogu
T. A. Ewemoje
P. S. Isaiah

Abstract

The study employed the UNESCO-IHP (International Hydrology Programme) HELP (Hydrology Environment Life and Policy) tool for watershed sustainability index (WSI) to evaluate the sustainability of the study area, University of Uyo main Campus watershed, comprising of three communities namely: Use Offot, Nsukara Offot and Ekpri Nsukara. The populace living here is perpetually confronted with the challenge of having adequate water to meet their needs despite abundant rainfall. This is due to lack of appropriate extraction mechanism and government will to means of making water available and accessible to the poeple. This study was to determine how sustainable the zone is regarding availability of water resource using WSI, which information is lacking. Field investigations and questionnaire tools were adopted to extract quantitative data for evaluating the adopted WSI template between years 2013 - 2018. Result obtained for Use Offot, shows the pressure state scored 0.75 each with hydrology quality scoring zero and Environment scoring 0.50. These, when averaged gave the HELP indicator score of 0.55. The State and Response parameters maximum and minimum values recorded were 0.75 (for Policy and Environment) and 1.0 for Hydrology quantity showing that these indicators are high within this region. The Community recorded a total average score of 0.59 of all the evaluated parameters, showing that the watershed was fairly sustainable. Nsukara Offot, recorded 0.60 on the final score, an indication that the watershed was sustainable since the value was above 0.50. However, Ekpri Nsukara recorded the highest sustainability value of 0.62 on the average after analysing all the indicators measured. This is because of the high values of the Hydrology (quantity and quality), Environment, and Life and Policy indicators when estimated. Summarily, the WSI of the studied area was of the order averagely: Use Offot = 0.59, Nsukara Offot = 0.60 and Ekpri Nsukara = 0.62 with an average total parameter score of 0.60 affirming that the watershed is sustainable. 

Keywords:
Watershed, sustainability-index, help-indicator, field investigations, questionnaire tools, template.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ahuchaogu, I. I., Ewemoje, T. A., & Isaiah, P. S. (2019). Estimation of Watershed Sustainability Index of University of Uyo Watershed Using UNESCO-IHP Help Tool. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 8(3), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i316992
Section
Original Research Article

References

Brundtland GH. Our Common Future/World Commission on Environment and Development, Oxford University Press Oxford; 1987.

Harding R. Environmental Decision Making (First edition), Sydney. The Federation Press; 2002.

Esty DC, Levy M, Srebotnjak T, de Sherbinin A. Environmental sustainability index: Benchmarking National Environmental Stewardship Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy. New Haven; 2005.

Spangenberg JH, Bonniot O. Sustainability indicators – A compass on the road towards Sustainability. Wuppertal paper. Dortmund: Wuppertal Institute.1998;81.

Prescott-Allen R, Nature IUFCO, Resources N. Barometer of sustainability: Measuring and communicating wellbeing and sustainable development: IUCN, International Union for conservation of Nature and National Resources; 1997.

Jesinghaus J. A European system of environmental pressure indices. Environmental Pressure Indices Handbook. 1999;1.

Portney K. Taking sustainability seriously; MIT Press, Cambridge, MA; 2003.

Parris K. Agricultural nutrient balances as agri-environmental indicators: An OECD perspective *1. Environmental Pollution. 1998;102(1):219-225.
(Accessed on: 5 July 2007)
Available:http://policyresearch.gc.ca/doclib/SD_PR_CWSI_web_e.pdf

Van Ittersum MK, Ewert F, Heckelei T, Wery J, Alkan Olsson J, Andresen E, Flichman G. Intergrated assessment of agricultural systems: A component-based framework for the European Union (SEAMLESS). Agricultural Systems. 2008; 96(1-3):150–165.

Ediger VS, Hosgor E, Surmeli AN, Tatlidil H. Fossil fuel sustainability index: An application of resource management. Energy Policy. 2007;35(5):2969–2977.

Lawrance P, Meigh J, Suillivan C. The water poverty index: An international Comparison; 2003.
(Accessed 25 June 2007)

Sullivan C, Meigh J, Lawrence P. Application of the water poverty index at different scales: A cautionary tale. Water International. 2006;31(3):412–426.

Policy Research Initiative. Canadian Water sustainability Index; 2007.
(Accessed on: 24 October 2014)
Available:http://policyresearch.gc.ca/doclib/SD_PR_CWSI_web_e.pdf

Chaves Henrique ML, Suzana Alipaz. An integrated indicator based on basin hydrology, environment, life and policy: The watershed sustainability index. Water Resource Management (Springer). 2007; 21:883-895.

Chaves HML, Alipaz S. An antegrated indicator based on basin hydrology, environment, life and policy: The watershed sustainability index. Water Resource Management. 2000;883-895.

Juwana I, Perera B, Muttil N. A water sustainability index for West Java-Part 2: Refining the conceptual framework using Delphi technique. Water science and technology: A Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research. 2010;62(7):1641-1652.

HELP.
(Retrieved; 18 March 2009)
Available:UNESCO:http://portal.Unesco. org

Catano N, Marchand M, Staley SIMONE, Wang Y. Development and validation of the Watershed Sustainability Index (WSI) for the watershed of the Reventazón river. Comcure Report; 2009.

OECD environmental indicators; development, measurement and use. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris, France. 2003;50.

Akwa Ibom State Government (AKSG). Akwa Ibom State-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; 2008.
(Accessed 20 April 2014)
Available:https://en.Wikipedia.org/wik:/Akwa¬_Ibom-sState

Daffi RE, Ahuchaogu II. Delineation of river watershed and stream network Using ILWIS 3.7.1 Academic. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology. 2017;4(4):1–8.
[Article no. AJEE.35972]
DOI:10.9734/AJEE/2017/35972

Catano N, Marchand M, Staley S, Wang, Y. Development and validation of the Watershed Sustainability Index (WSI) for the watershed of the Reventazon River. In Cooperation with Executive Director Guillermo Flores Marchena of Comcure. 2017;1–31.
(Accessed December 9, 2017)