Main Article Content
This research focuses on the extraction of beta-carotene from palm and soybean oils using solvents (Ethanol and Acetone), taking into account the effect of the extraction process factors such as time, temperature, dosage of the oil samples, solvent volume and solvent type. The extraction of beta-carotene from palm and soybean oils using acetone and ethanol was positively influenced by increase in temperature, time, solvent volume, dosage of the oil samples and solvent type. The effect of temperatures was carried out within the temperature ranges of 35ºC, 40ºC, 45ºC and 50ºC. It was observed that increase in temperature resulted in increase in concentration and 45ºC gave the highest concentration. From the study, it was observed that the extraction process for beta-carotene almost reached equilibrium after 50 mins for palm oil and 45 mins for soybean oil. Between acetone and ethanol used, ethanol was found to be the best solvent for the extraction of beta-carotene from palm oil and soybean oil. From the results, the concentration of the extracted beta-carotene increased as the volume of the solvent increased using both acetone and ethanol on both substrates. The concentration of extracted beta-carotene increased with increase in the dosage of the oil samples (palm and soybean). The increase in concentration could be attributed to the more active sites due to increase in the substrate volume.
Imoisi OB, Ilori GE, Agho I, Ekhator JO. Palm oil, its nutritional and health implications. JASEM. 2015;19(1): 127-133.
McEvoy GK (ed). American hospital formulary service. AHFS Drug Information. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Bethesda, MD. 2006;3335–3556.
Gob SH, Choo YM, Ong SH. Minor Constituents of palm oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 1985;62 (2):237.
Ooi CY, Yap S, Basiron Y, Ong A. Recovery of carotenoids from palm oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. 1994;71(4):423–426.
Birtigh A, Johannsen M, Brunner G, Nair N. Supercritical-fluid extraction of oil-palm components. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 1995;8(1):46–50.
Baharin B, Rahman KA, Karim MA, Oyaizu T, Tanaka K, Tanaka Y, Takagi S. Separation of palm carotene from crude oil by adsorption chromatography with a synthetic polumer adsorbent. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. 1998; 75(3):399-404.
Lau HLN, Choo YM, Ma AN, Chuah AN. Selective extraction of palm carotene and vitamin E from fresh palm-pressed mesocarp fibre (Elaeis guineensis) using supercritical C0 2. Journal of Food Engineering. 2008;84(2):289–296.
Liauw MY, Natan FA, Widiyanti P, Ikasari D, Indraswati N, Soctaredjo FE. Extraction of Neem Oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) using n-hexane and ethanol: Studies on oil quality, kinetic and thermodynamic. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2008; 3(3).
Noshazila S, Koy CN, Rashid O, Ho LH, Azrina I, Nurul Zaizuliana RA, Zarinah Z. The effect of time, temperature and solid to solvent ratio on pumpkin caraoteniods extracted using food grade solvents. Journal of SainsMalaysiana. 2017;46(2): 231–237.
Kamalpreet Kaur, Uma Shanker Shivhare, Santanu Basu, Vijaya Raghavan GS. Kinetics of extraction of beta-carotene from tray dried carrots by using supercritical fluid extraction technique. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2012;3:591–595.
Ejikeme Patrick CN, Ejikeme Ebere M. Effect of process factors on desorption of Swiss blue dye from spent microwave prepared Activated Carbon from Hamburger seed shell. Department of Chemical Engineering, Enugu State of Science and Technology; 2017.
Moldoveannu SC, David V. Solvent Extraction. Amsterdam; Elsevier; December; 2015.